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Special Issue "Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Timothy M. Swager

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 18-393, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 617-253-4423
Interests: Optical and Chemiresistive Sensors, Polymers, Carbon Nanomaterials, Molecular Recognition
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Katherine Mirica

Department of Chemistry, Dartmouth College, 41 College Street, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: materials, organic, and analytical chemistry; chemical sensors; portable devices; nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The age of nanoelectronics and low power electronics have created a nexus of opportunity for the development of new generations of chemiresisitive sensors. The success of metal oxide sensors is unquestioned, and, although the first generation of these sensors required high temperature operation, which can have limits for low power operation and selectivity, they continue to be highly useful in nano-structured and hybrid devices. A maturing of our ability to create functional devices from carbon-based conducting materials, including carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers, are also presenting opportunities. Evolving designs are providing abundant options for the integration of new mechanisms for gaining selectivity and sensitivity. The challenges to the field of chemiresistive sensors are still many and the fact that carriers (electrons or holes) have intrinsic charge, can give large interfering signals from a variety of polar and ionic species, is a general issue this community continues to confront. Additionally, these types of sensors, particularly with nano-structuring, can be prone to drift over time. As a result of the abundant opportunities and challenges, we have decided that it is timely to create a Special Issue in Sensors. Experienced researchers, as well as newcomers, will benefit from a consolidated collection of insightful and innovative publications, and we hope that you will contribute to this important project and help use expand the understanding and impact of chemiresistive sensors.

Prof. Timothy M Swager
Assist. Prof. Katherine Mirica
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Conductometric Sensors
  • Chemiresistive Sensors
  • Sensor Arrays
  • Nanowires
  • Field Effect Transistor Sensors
  • Carbon Nanotubes
  • Conducting Polymers
  • Metal Oxides
  • Organic Electronics
  • Metal Organic Frameworks

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Drawing Sensors with Ball-Milled Blends of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Graphite
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102192
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The synthetically tunable properties and intrinsic porosity of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them promising materials for transducing selective interactions with gaseous analytes in an electrically addressable platform. Consequently, conductive MOFs are valuable functional materials with high potential utility in chemical detection. The
[...] Read more.
The synthetically tunable properties and intrinsic porosity of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them promising materials for transducing selective interactions with gaseous analytes in an electrically addressable platform. Consequently, conductive MOFs are valuable functional materials with high potential utility in chemical detection. The implementation of these materials, however, is limited by the available methods for device incorporation due to their poor solubility and moderate electrical conductivity. This manuscript describes a straightforward method for the integration of moderately conductive MOFs into chemiresistive sensors by mechanical abrasion. To improve electrical contacts, blends of MOFs with graphite were generated using a solvent-free ball-milling procedure. While most bulk powders of pure conductive MOFs were difficult to integrate into devices directly via mechanical abrasion, the compressed solid-state MOF/graphite blends were easily abraded onto the surface of paper substrates equipped with gold electrodes to generate functional sensors. This method was used to prepare an array of chemiresistors, from four conductive MOFs, capable of detecting and differentiating NH3, H2S and NO at parts-per-million concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Chlordetect: Commercial Calcium Aluminate Based Conductimetric Sensor for Chloride Presence Detection
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092099
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chloride presence affects different environments (soil, water, concrete) decreasing their qualities. In order to assess chloride concentration this paper proposes a novel sensor for detecting and measuring it. This sensor is based on electric changes of commercial monocalcium aluminate (CA) when it interacts
[...] Read more.
Chloride presence affects different environments (soil, water, concrete) decreasing their qualities. In order to assess chloride concentration this paper proposes a novel sensor for detecting and measuring it. This sensor is based on electric changes of commercial monocalcium aluminate (CA) when it interacts with chloride aqueous solutions. CA is used as a dielectric material between two coplanar capacitors. The geometry proposed for this sensor allows to assess the chloride content profile, or to make four times the same measurement. Besides, the experimental design gives us the possibility of study not just the chloride effect, but also the time and some geometric effects due to the sensor design. As a result, this sensor shows a limit of detection, sensitivity, and response time: 0.01 wt % Cl and 0.06 wt % Cl, and 2 min, respectively, comparable with other non invasive techniques as optical fibre sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Open AccessArticle Array of Chemosensitive Resistors with Composites of Gas Chromatography (GC) Materials and Carbon Black for Detection and Recognition of VOCs: A Basic Study
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071606
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mimicking the biological olfaction, large odor-sensor arrays can be used to acquire a broad range of chemical information, with a potentially high degree of redundancy, to allow for enhanced control over the sensitivity and selectivity of artificial olfaction systems. The arrays should consist
[...] Read more.
Mimicking the biological olfaction, large odor-sensor arrays can be used to acquire a broad range of chemical information, with a potentially high degree of redundancy, to allow for enhanced control over the sensitivity and selectivity of artificial olfaction systems. The arrays should consist of the largest possible number of individual sensing elements while being miniaturized. Chemosensitive resistors are one of the sensing platforms that have a potential to satisfy these two conditions. In this work we test viability of fabricating a 16-element chemosensitive resistor array for detection and recognition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensors were fabricated using blends of carbon black and gas chromatography (GC) stationary-phase materials preselected based on their sorption properties. Blends of the selected GC materials with carbon black particles were subsequently coated over chemosensitive resistor devices and the resulting sensors/arrays evaluated in exposure experiments against vapors of pyrrole, benzenal, nonanal, and 2-phenethylamine at 150, 300, 450, and 900 ppb. Responses of the fabricated 16-element array were stable and differed for each individual odorant sample, proving the blends of GC materials with carbon black particles can be effectively used for fabrication of large odor-sensing arrays based on chemosensitive resistors. The obtained results suggest that the proposed sensing devices could be effective in discriminating odor/vapor samples at the sub-ppm level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Open AccessArticle Tuning Selectivity of Fluorescent Carbon Nanotube-Based Neurotransmitter Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071521
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building
[...] Read more.
Detection of neurotransmitters is an analytical challenge and essential to understand neuronal networks in the brain and associated diseases. However, most methods do not provide sufficient spatial, temporal, or chemical resolution. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as building blocks for sensors/probes that detect catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine. This approach provides a high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is not understood if these sensors are able to distinguish dopamine from similar catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine or norepinephrine. In this work, the organic phase (DNA sequence) around SWCNTs was varied to create sensors with different selectivity and sensitivity for catecholamine neurotransmitters. Most DNA-functionalized SWCNTs responded to catecholamine neurotransmitters, but both dissociation constants (Kd) and limits of detection were highly dependent on functionalization (sequence). Kd values span a range of 2.3 nM (SWCNT-(GC)15 + norepinephrine) to 9.4 μM (SWCNT-(AT)15 + dopamine) and limits of detection are mostly in the single-digit nM regime. Additionally, sensors of different SWCNT chirality show different fluorescence increases. Moreover, certain sensors (e.g., SWCNT-(GT)10) distinguish between different catecholamines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine at low concentrations (50 nM). These results show that SWCNTs functionalized with certain DNA sequences are able to discriminate between catecholamine neurotransmitters or to detect them in the presence of interfering substances of similar structure. Such sensors will be useful to measure and study neurotransmitter signaling in complex biological settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Open AccessArticle Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17050982
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign
[...] Read more.
Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemiresistive Sensors
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040882
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (4019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of simple and low-cost chemical sensors is critically important for improving human life. Many types of chemical sensors have been developed. Among them, the chemiresistive sensors receive particular attention because of their simple structure, the ease of high precise measurement and
[...] Read more.
The development of simple and low-cost chemical sensors is critically important for improving human life. Many types of chemical sensors have been developed. Among them, the chemiresistive sensors receive particular attention because of their simple structure, the ease of high precise measurement and the low cost. This review mainly focuses on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based chemiresistive sensors. We first describe the properties of CNTs and the structure of CNT chemiresistive sensors. Next, the sensing mechanism and the performance parameters of the sensors are discussed. Then, we detail the status of the CNT chemiresistive sensors for detection of different analytes. Lastly, we put forward the remaining challenges for CNT chemiresistive sensors and outlook the possible opportunity for CNT chemiresistive sensors in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Metal–Organic Frameworks as Active Materials in Electronic Sensor Devices
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17051108
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (2632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past decade, advances in electrically conductive metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-based electronic devices have created new opportunities for the development of next-generation sensors. Here we review this rapidly-growing field, with a focus on the different types of device configurations that have
[...] Read more.
In the past decade, advances in electrically conductive metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-based electronic devices have created new opportunities for the development of next-generation sensors. Here we review this rapidly-growing field, with a focus on the different types of device configurations that have allowed for the use of MOFs as active components of electronic sensor devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemiresistive Sensors: Status and the Future)
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