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Special Issue "Smart TDR Sensors for Moisture Measurement"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 3280

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zbigniew Suchorab
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, 40B Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Interests: time domain reflectometry; material moisture; apparent permittivity; non-invasive sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Grzegorz Łagód
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 40B, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Interests: sensing techniques; application of artificial senses in environmental engineering; bioindication and biomonitoring; water quality; moisture properties of porous materials; environmental modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) plays a significant role among the techniques of moisture detection in porous media. It is an electric technique applied for determining the apparent permittivity of porous materials by the measurement of electromagnetic pulse propagation time along the metal rods of measuring probes. For many years, it has been widely applied by scientists and engineers to measure moisture of soil but also to evaluate parameters of other porous media such as rocks or building materials.

The TDR method is continuously developing. New devices are being designed, techniques of signal processing are improved, probes constructions are modified and new formulas of calibration are estimated.

This Special Issue is addressed to all researchers that develop the TDR sensing technique of moisture detection.

Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Suchorab
Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Łagód
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • time domain reflectometry
  • apparent permittivity
  • sensing probe
  • calibration methods
  • moisture detection
  • soil moisture
  • material moisture

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Comparison of the Moist Material Relative Permittivity Readouts Using the Non-Invasive Reflectometric Sensors and Microwave Antenna
Sensors 2022, 22(10), 3622; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22103622 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
The article concerns the issue of non-invasive moisture sensing in building materials. Two techniques that enable evaluating the value of the relative permittivity of the material, being the measure of porous material moisture, have been utilized for the research. The first is the [...] Read more.
The article concerns the issue of non-invasive moisture sensing in building materials. Two techniques that enable evaluating the value of the relative permittivity of the material, being the measure of porous material moisture, have been utilized for the research. The first is the microwave technique that utilizes the non-contact measurement of velocity of microwave radiation across the tested material and the second is the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique based on the measurement of electromagnetic pulse propagation time along the waveguides, being the elements of sensor design. The tested building material involved samples of red ceramic brick that differed in moisture, ranging between 0% and 14% moisture by weight. The main goal of the research was to present the measuring potential of both techniques for moisture evaluation as well as emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Within the research, it was stated that both methods provide similar measuring potential, with a slight advantage in favor of a microwave non-contact sensor over surface TDR sensor designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart TDR Sensors for Moisture Measurement)
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Article
Determination of Time Domain Reflectometry Surface Sensors Sensitivity Depending on Geometry and Material Moisture
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030735 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
The article concerns the electric techniques of moisture detection that are based on the evaluation of the apparent permittivity of the tested medium. The main goal of the research was to evaluate the non-invasive Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors’ sensitivity by measuring the [...] Read more.
The article concerns the electric techniques of moisture detection that are based on the evaluation of the apparent permittivity of the tested medium. The main goal of the research was to evaluate the non-invasive Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors’ sensitivity by measuring the span of elements and material moisture. To that aim, two non-invasive sensor designs were investigated for their sensitivity in the evaluation of the apparent permittivity value of aerated concrete. Sensors A and B were characterized by the spacing between the measuring elements equal to 30 mm and 70 mm, respectively. The tested samples differed in moisture, ranging between 0 and 0.3 cm3/cm3 volumetric water content. Within the research, it was stated that in the case of the narrower sensor (A), the range of the sensor equals about 30 mm, and in the case of the wider design (B), it equals about 50 mm. Additionally, it was stated that material moisture influences the range of sensor influence. In the case of the dry and low-saturated material, it was not possible to evaluate the range of sensor sensitivity using the adopted method, whereas the range of sensor signal influence was visible for the moist material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart TDR Sensors for Moisture Measurement)
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Article
In Search of a Soil Moisture Content Simulation Model: Mechanistic and Data Mining Approach Based on TDR Method Results
Sensors 2021, 21(20), 6819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21206819 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Soil moisture content simulation models have continuously been an important research objective. In particular, the comparisons of the performance of different model types deserve proper attention. Therefore, the quality of selected physically-based and statistical models was analyzed utilizing the data from the Time [...] Read more.
Soil moisture content simulation models have continuously been an important research objective. In particular, the comparisons of the performance of different model types deserve proper attention. Therefore, the quality of selected physically-based and statistical models was analyzed utilizing the data from the Time Domain Reflectometry technique. An E-Test measurement system was applied with the reflectogram interpreted into soil volumetric moisture content by proper calibration equations. The gathered data facilitated to calibrate the physical model of Deardorff and establish parameters of: support vector machines, multivariate adaptive regression spline, and boosted trees model. The general likelihood uncertainty estimation revealed the sensitivity of individual model parameters. As it was assumed, a simple structure of statistical models was achieved but no direct physical interpretation of their parameters, contrary to a physically-based method. The TDR technique proved useful for the calibration of different soil moisture models and a satisfactory quality for their future exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart TDR Sensors for Moisture Measurement)
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