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Antenna Array Design for Wireless Communications and Remote Sensing

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 1725

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Chief Technology Officer, Department of Research and Development, The Antenna Company, High Tech Campus 29, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2. Associate Professor, Electromagnetics Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Interests: full-wave analysis and design of passive devices and antennas for satellite; wireless; radar applications; development of analytically based numerical techniques devoted to the modeling of wave propagation and diffraction processes; theory of special functions for electromagnetics; deterministic synthesis of sparse antenna arrays and solution of boundary-value problems for partial differential equations of mathematical physics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antenna arrays have attracted growing attention in many applications relevant to wireless communications and remote sensing, making array antenna technology a cornerstone of electrical engineering. With the rapid development of technology in modern radio systems, such as those meant for the upcoming deployment of 5G and 6G networks, antenna arrays are required to meet progressively more stringent specifications in terms of architecture complexity, as well as broadband behaviour, high-gain multi-beam characteristics, and low scan losses. These are instrumental to achieving satisfactory system performance and reliable quality of service, while compensating for the detrimental effect of the path loss.

To achieve multi-functional operation and high data rates, wideband and/or multiband antenna arrays are key. The overall system cost can be reduced if the integrated antenna array can operate at multiple bands concurrently with electronically controllable radiation pattern characteristics. Furthermore, beam scanning over a broad angular range with a stable gain is highly desirable. To realise a broadband and wide-angle scanning array, grating, lobe suppression, active reflection coefficient minimisation, and gain ripple reduction are the main design challenges. Additionally, a wide beam-width at the embedded antenna or sub-array element is beneficial for keeping gain fluctuation low while reducing scan losses, but can cause a degradation of the active reflection coefficient and poor antenna isolation. Parasitic coupling phenomena also depend on the host body dimensions and relative curvature. The aforementioned conflicting requirements are to be addressed concurrently using suitable design solutions and approaches.

The synthesis of general antenna arrays is a challenging problem because of the nonlinearity between the electromagnetic field distribution in the Fraunhofer region and the unknowns, primarily the number and position of the array elements. Where local optimisation algorithms are adopted in the design procedure, these are likely to be trapped into local minima. The use of global minimisation techniques, such as stochastic evolutionary algorithms, allows asymptotic obtaining of the optimal solution of the problem, but at the expense of a typically longer synthesis time that increases exponentially as the number of unknowns becomes large. In this context, deterministic synthesis methodologies based on analytical formulations may provide a compelling advantage. Besides, array sparseness can be exploited as an additional degree of freedom to satisfy demanding system architecture constraints in terms of the number of radiating elements, minimum interelement spacing, and, more importantly, peak sidelobe level. This can also be useful to enable a more effective thermal management of antenna array modules.

The optimal design of an antenna array also requires the implementation of a suitable calibration technique. Accurate calibration is critical to preserve the main beam direction and shape, as well as to control the sidelobe level of a given antenna array. In practice, the beamforming network of an antenna array is often affected by electronic drift, as well as temperature and environmental conditions; thus, calibration of a fielded array system can be essential to ensure the desired system performance.

This Special Issue provides an international forum for researchers to disseminate their achievements and ideas tackling challenging research problems concerning antenna array development. Particular emphasis is put on array synthesis, design, and measurement techniques; in particular, solutions for joint communication and sensing systems are solicited. We welcome both original research and review articles.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Array antenna technology;
  • Numerical modelling and analysis of planar and conformal arrays;
  • Near- and far-field synthesis techniques for regular and aperiodic arrays;
  • Antenna mutual coupling;
  • Array beamforming network design;
  • Array measurements and calibration;
  • Joint communication and sensing systems.

Dr. Diego Caratelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

22 pages, 2688 KiB  
Review
Advanced Dielectric Resonator Antenna Technology for 5G and 6G Applications
by Yingqi Zhang, Stanislav Ogurtsov, Vasilii Vasilev, Ahmed A. Kishk and Diego Caratelli
Sensors 2024, 24(5), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24051413 - 22 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
We review dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) designs. This review examines recent advancements across several categories, specifically focusing on their applicability in array configurations for millimeter-wave (mmW) bands, particularly in the context of 5G and beyond 5G applications. Notably, the off-chip DRA designs, including [...] Read more.
We review dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) designs. This review examines recent advancements across several categories, specifically focusing on their applicability in array configurations for millimeter-wave (mmW) bands, particularly in the context of 5G and beyond 5G applications. Notably, the off-chip DRA designs, including in-substrate and compact DRAs, have gained prominence in recent years. This surge in popularity can be attributed to the rapid development of cost-effective multilayer laminate manufacturing techniques, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs) and low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). Furthermore, there is a growing demand for DRAs with beam-steering, dual-band functions, and on-chip alignment availability, as they offer versatile alternatives to traditional lossy printed antennas. DRAs exhibit distinct advantages of lower conductive losses and greater flexibility in shapes and materials. We discuss and compare the performances of different DRA designs, considering their material usage, manufacturing feasibility, overall performance, and applications. By exploring the pros and cons of these diverse DRA designs, this review provides valuable insights for researchers in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antenna Array Design for Wireless Communications and Remote Sensing)
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