Special Issue "The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications"

A special issue of Safety (ISSN 2313-576X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jake Olivier
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: cycling safety; injury epidemiology; road safety; biostatistics; research methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There has been a surge in cycling across many countries in the past decade. Part of this increase can be attributed to sport cycling among older men, often termed middle-aged men in Lycra or MAMILs, but there have also been increases in recreational, commuting, and utilitarian cycling. This is good news on many fronts, as cycling offers health benefits over motor vehicle travel, can substantially alleviate traffic congestion in urban areas, and has a small carbon footprint. The injury costs, however, can be quite substantial, including fatalities, traumatic brain injuries, and long bone fractures. With increases in cyclists there will likely be more injuries and, although dedicated cycling infrastructure appears to be a key component to ameliorating cycling injury, it is not fully understood which cycling safety strategies work best. This Special issue will explore the factors associated with reducing cycling injury with a focus to the potential increased health burden with more cyclists. Researchers are invited to submit manuscripts regarding any aspect of cycling safety.

Dr. Jake Olivier
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Safety is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cycling;
  • Infrastructure;
  • Injury Epidemiology;
  • Road Safety Interventions;
  • Health Impact

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles
Safety 2016, 2(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2040026 - 10 Dec 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene [...] Read more.
We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS) into none/mild (0–8) versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8) and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars), painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33). Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91–4.15). Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71) and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22) times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Bicycle Crash Risk Patterns on the Local Scale
Safety 2016, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2030017 - 01 Sep 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate [...] Read more.
Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate and map the crash risk on various spatial scales for the city of Salzburg (Austria). In doing so, we directly account for the spatial heterogeneity of crash occurrences. Additionally, we provide a measure for the statistical robustness on the level of single reference units and consider modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) effects in our analysis. This study is the first of its kind. The results facilitate a better understanding of spatial patterns of bicycle crash rates on the local scale. This is especially important for cities that strive to improve the safety situation for bicyclists in order to address prevailing safety concerns that keep people from using the bicycle as a utilitarian mode of (urban) transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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Open AccessArticle
Bicycle-Bicycle Accidents Emerge from Encounters: An Agent-Based Approach
Safety 2016, 2(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020014 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
Traditional accident risk prediction models need adequate data on explanatory variables, most importantly data on traffic flows. However, in the case of accidents between bicycles the availability of such data is often limited. Therefore, alternative bottom-up simulation modelling approaches are expected to complement [...] Read more.
Traditional accident risk prediction models need adequate data on explanatory variables, most importantly data on traffic flows. However, in the case of accidents between bicycles the availability of such data is often limited. Therefore, alternative bottom-up simulation modelling approaches are expected to complement traditional equation-based models. In this paper we present an agent-based approach to explore bicycle-bicycle accidents. Specifically, we hypothesise that (1) bicycle-bicycle accidents are based on the population of encounters between cyclists rather than on bicycle flows and (2) that encounters have a non-linear relationship with flows. Bicycle flows and encounters are simulated by means of an agent-based model that is implemented for the road network of the city of Salzburg. Simulation results are tested against a 10-year dataset of police records on bicycle-bicycle accidents. The results affirm both hypotheses: First, cyclist encounters exhibit a linear relationship to accidents and thus suggest being the true population of bicycle-bicycle accidents. Second, flows show a relationship in the form of a second-order polynomial function with encounters as well as accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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Open AccessArticle
Sport Cycling Crashes among Males on Public Roads, the Influence of Bunch Riding, Experience and Competitiveness
Safety 2016, 2(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2020011 - 06 Apr 2016
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Introduction: Since 2006, the number of seriously injured bicyclists in The Netherlands has increased significantly. This is also the case for sport cyclists. Over 80% of sport cyclists are male. We propose three factors that may contribute to involvement in sport cycling crashes [...] Read more.
Introduction: Since 2006, the number of seriously injured bicyclists in The Netherlands has increased significantly. This is also the case for sport cyclists. Over 80% of sport cyclists are male. We propose three factors that may contribute to involvement in sport cycling crashes among males: Bunch riding (cycling in a group), the inflow of sport cyclists with little experience and a competitive attitude. Methods: Early 2014, a questionnaire was sent to 2625 members of the Dutch Tour Cycling Union to obtain data on involvement in sport cycling crashes in the year 2013 and possible contributing factors (e.g., bunch riding, experience, competitiveness, distance travelled). Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to compare data from male respondents (N = 744). Contrast was made between those who reported involvement in a crash (N = 313) and those who did not (N = 431). Results: Male sport cyclists who are involved in bunch riding and those who are relatively inexperienced (less than three years compared to more than 10 years) have a higher crash involvement (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.79; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.26 – 2.54) and (OR = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.06) regardless of age, annual distance travelled and competitive attitude. Annual distance travelled was not related to crash involvement over the year 2013, indicating that cyclists who travel a longer annual distance have a lower risk (persons involved in at least one crash per km). Conclusions: We recommend that the efficacy of bunch riding training interventions among males is evaluated, with the focus on promoting safety among inexperienced sport cyclists and bunch riding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)

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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Pless, B. Risk Compensation: Revisited and Rebutted. Safety 2016, 2, 16
Safety 2016, 2(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2030019 - 21 Sep 2016
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
I regret that the following errors have been found in the published paper [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
Open AccessCommentary
Risk Compensation: Revisited and Rebutted
Safety 2016, 2(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety2030016 - 29 Aug 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2871 | Correction
Abstract
This Commentary addresses the ongoing disagreements between many safety advocates who endorse traditional models of prevention and those who oppose them, arguing that safety measures are offset by risk compensation (RCT). The debate is especially heated with respect to regulatory or legislative prevention [...] Read more.
This Commentary addresses the ongoing disagreements between many safety advocates who endorse traditional models of prevention and those who oppose them, arguing that safety measures are offset by risk compensation (RCT). The debate is especially heated with respect to regulatory or legislative prevention measures. After explaining the rationale behind risk compensation (aka risk homeostasis theory) (RHT), I provide examples of RCT studies to explain why I believe they should be rejected. The main basis for my rebuttal, however, rests on data that show steady declines in unintentional injury mortality, which, according to RCT, should not have occurred. There are many other reasons for rejecting this theory, and it seems that the time has come for the debate to finally be concluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Return of Cycling—Safety Implications)
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