Special Issue "Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicola Casagli
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via La Pira 4, Florence, Italy
Interests: geological hazards and ground instability; landslide monitoring; remote sensing data interpretation and validation; engineering geological characterization and modelling
Dr. Oriol Monserrat
Website
Guest Editor
Remote Sensing Department, Division of Geomatics, Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain
Interests: remote sensing data processing; SAR data; SAR interferometry; geohazard monitoring; landslide mapping; building monitoring; land subsidence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mahdi Motagh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geodesy, GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences, Potsdam, and Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany
Interests: radar remote sensing for geoscience and engineering applications; multitemporal InSAR time-series techniques; geophysical and numerical modeling of deformation processes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Lorenzo Solari
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze, Italy
Interests: remote sensing data interpretation; geohazards monitoring; landslide mapping; building monitoring; land subsidence
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, the increasing complexity of society and rapid and uncontrolled urbanization has led to an increase in geohazard-related economic and social losses. Considering hydrogeological events, their temporal repeatability and intensity are exacerbated by man-induced environmental transformations, as well as by global climate changes.

Nowadays, the use of Earth Observation products for geohazards prevention, mapping, and monitoring is well established in the scientific community and is being recognized as a valuable tool for risk management and reduction by administrative entities and civil protection authorities. Recent hydrogeological disasters in nations extremely exposed to geohazards have shown that, not only are civil and political society unprepared for catastrophes, but also that there is sometimes a lack of frequently-updated monitoring and forecasting data.

The launch of the Sentinel constellation (Sentinel-1 in 2014 and Sentinel-2 in 2015) by the European Space Agency opened new frontiers for forecasting, mapping and monitoring geohazards. This new constellation of radar and optical sensors has been specifically designed for civilian use, focusing on the scientific exploitation of images in the framework of the Copernicus service.

For the first time, a satellite constellation offers regularly acquired (every six and five days for Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2, respectively) and free-to-use data to the large group of scientists interested in environmental analyses and risk management. The combination of short revisiting times, rapid product delivery (less than 3 hours) and a wide area coverage are ideally suited for implementing regional-scale monitoring strategies based on optical and radar Sentinel images or on a data fusion of both.

This Special Issue will focus on innovative algorithms, analytical approaches and procedures for Sentinel image exploitation. We encourage not only to submit technical issues, but also practical methodologies on the use and understanding of Sentinel-derived products outside the scientific community. Papers proposing the combination of optical and radar Sentinel data or data fusion approaches are also very welcome.

In particular, research papers are encouraged to cover a wide range of subjects, which may include, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Geohazards forecasting, mapping and monitoring using Sentinel satellites;
  • Vulnerability and risk assessment procedures based on Sentinel data;
  • Data fusion approaches for risk management and reduction;
  • Long-term monitoring services based on Sentinel data;
  • New image algorithms;
  • Innovative time series analysis.

Prof. Dr. Nicola Casagli
Dr. Oriol Monserrat
Prof. Dr. Mahdi Motagh
Dr. Lorenzo Solari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sentinel satellites
  • geohazards monitoring
  • natural hazard prevention
  • ground deformation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Ground Deformation Revealed by Sentinel-1 MSBAS-InSAR Time-Series over Karamay Oilfield, China
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172027 - 28 Aug 2019
Abstract
Fluid extraction or injection into underground reservoirs may cause ground deformation, manifested as subsidence or uplift. Excessive deformation may threaten the infrastructure of the oilfield and its surroundings and may even induce earthquakes. Therefore, the monitoring of surface deformation caused by oil production [...] Read more.
Fluid extraction or injection into underground reservoirs may cause ground deformation, manifested as subsidence or uplift. Excessive deformation may threaten the infrastructure of the oilfield and its surroundings and may even induce earthquakes. Therefore, the monitoring of surface deformation caused by oil production activities is important for the safe production of oilfields and safety assessments of surrounding infrastructure. Karamay oilfield is one of the major oil and gas fields in China. In this study, we take the Karamay oilfield in Xinjiang as a case study to detect surface deformation caused by subsurface fluid injection. Sentinel-1A images of 32 ascending (Path 114) and 34 descending (Path 165) tracks spanning March 2017 to August 2018, were used to derive vertical and horizontal deformation over Karamay oilfield using the MSBAS-InSAR method. The observed two-dimensional deformation exhibited significant vertical and east-west deformation in this region. The maximum uplift and horizontal velocity was approximately 160 mm/year and 65 mm/year, respectively. We also modeled one of the typical deformation zones using a dislocation model in a homogenous elastic half-space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Slip Model of the 2018 Mw 6.6 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi, Japan, Earthquake Estimated from Satellite Radar and GPS Measurements
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(14), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11141667 - 13 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, Sentinel-1 and Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global positioning system (GPS) data were used to jointly determine the source parameters and fault slip distribution of the Mw 6.6 Hokkaido eastern Iburi, Japan, earthquake that [...] Read more.
In this study, Sentinel-1 and Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and global positioning system (GPS) data were used to jointly determine the source parameters and fault slip distribution of the Mw 6.6 Hokkaido eastern Iburi, Japan, earthquake that occurred on 5 September 2018. The coseismic deformation map obtained from the ascending and descending Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 InSAR data and GPS data is consistent with a thrust faulting event. A comparison between the InSAR-observed and GPS-projected line-of-sight (LOS) deformation suggests that descending Sentinel-1 track T046D, descending ALOS-2 track P018D, and ascending ALOS-2 track P112A and GPS data can be used to invert for the source parameters. The results of a nonlinear inversion show that the seismogenic fault is a blind NNW-trending (strike angle ~347.2°), east-dipping (dip angle ~79.6°) thrust fault. On the basis of the optimal fault geometry model, the fault slip distribution jointly inverted from the three datasets reveals that a significant slip area extends 30 km along the strike and 25 km in the downdip direction, and the peak slip magnitude can approach 0.53 m at a depth of 15.5 km. The estimated geodetic moment magnitude released by the distributed slip model is 6.16   × 10 18   N · m , equivalent to an event magnitude of Mw 6.50, which is slightly smaller than the estimates of focal mechanism solutions. According to the Coulomb stress change at the surrounding faults, more attention should be paid to potential earthquake disasters in this region in the near future. In consideration of the possibility of multi-fault rupture and complexity of regional geologic framework, the refined distributed slip and seismogenic mechanism of this deep reverse faulting should be investigated with multi-disciplinary (e.g., geodetic, seismic, and geological) data in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Land Surface Displacement over Xuzhou (China) in 2015–2018 through PCA-Based Correction Applied to SAR Interferometry
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(12), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11121494 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Land surface deformation in metropolitan areas, which can cause varying degrees of hazard to both human lives and to properties, has been documented for decades in cities worldwide. Xuzhou, is one of the most important energy and industrial bases in eastern China, and [...] Read more.
Land surface deformation in metropolitan areas, which can cause varying degrees of hazard to both human lives and to properties, has been documented for decades in cities worldwide. Xuzhou, is one of the most important energy and industrial bases in eastern China, and has experienced significant land subsidence due to both excessive extraction of karst underground water and exploitation of mineral resources in recent decades. Furthermore, Xuzhou has recently undergone rapid urbanization in terms of urban expansion and underground construction, which could induce additional pressure on the urban land surface. However, most previous research on land surface deformation in the Xuzhou urban areas has been conducted based on traditional ground-based deformation monitoring techniques with sparse measurements. Little is known about the regional spatiotemporal behavior of land surface displacement in Xuzhou. In this study, a detailed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) time series analysis was performed to characterize the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of land surface deformation in central areas of Xuzhou during 2015–2018. A method based on principal component analysis was adopted to correct artifacts in the InSAR signal. Results showed the correction strategy markedly reduced the discrepancy between global navigation satellite systems and InSAR measurements. Noticeable land subsidence (−5 to −41 mm/yr) was revealed widely within the Xuzhou urban areas, particularly along subway lines under construction, newly developed districts, and in old coal goafs. Remarkable consistent land uplift (up to +25 mm/yr) was found to have significantly affected two long narrow areas within the old goafs since 2015. The possible principal influencing factors contributing to the land surface displacements such as subway tunneling, building construction, mining, underground water levels and geological conditions are then discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
The 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu Earthquake: A Supershear Rupture Event Constrained by InSAR and Broadband Regional Seismograms
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(11), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111330 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The 28 September 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu earthquake occurred at a triple junction zone where the Philippine Sea, Australian, and Sunda plates are convergent. Here, we utilized Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) interferometry synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data together with broadband regional seismograms [...] Read more.
The 28 September 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu earthquake occurred at a triple junction zone where the Philippine Sea, Australian, and Sunda plates are convergent. Here, we utilized Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) interferometry synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data together with broadband regional seismograms to investigate the source geometry and rupture kinematics of this earthquake. Results showed that the 2018 Palu earthquake ruptured a fault plane with a relatively steep dip angle of ~85°. The preferred rupture model demonstrated that the earthquake was a supershear event from early on, with an average rupture speed of 4.1 km/s, which is different from the common supershear events that typically show an initial subshear rupture. The rupture expanded rapidly (~4.1 km/s) from the hypocenter and propagated bilaterally towards the north and south along the strike direction during the first 8 s, and then to the south. Four visible asperities were ruptured during the slip pulse propagation, which resulted in four significant deformation lobes in the coseismic interferogram. The maximum slip of 6.5 m was observed to the south of the city of Palu, and the total seismic moment released within 40 s was 2.64 × 1020 N·m, which was equivalent to Mw 7.55. Our results shed some light on the transtensional tectonism in Sulawesi, given that the 2018 Palu earthquake was dominated by left-lateral strike slip (slip maxima is 6.2 m) and that some significant normal faulting components (slip maxima is ~3 m) were resolved as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Coseismic Deformation Field of the Mw 7.3 12 November 2017 Sarpol-e Zahab (Iran) Earthquake: A Decoupling Horizon in the Northern Zagros Mountains Inferred from InSAR Observations
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101589 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
The study of crustal deformation fields caused by earthquakes is important for a better understanding of seismic hazard and growth of geological structures in tectonically active areas. In this study, we present, using interferometric measurements constructed from Sentinel-1 Terrain Observation with Progressive Scan [...] Read more.
The study of crustal deformation fields caused by earthquakes is important for a better understanding of seismic hazard and growth of geological structures in tectonically active areas. In this study, we present, using interferometric measurements constructed from Sentinel-1 Terrain Observation with Progressive Scan (TOPS) data and ALOS-2 ScanSAR, coseismic deformation and source model of the Mw 7.3, 12 November 2017 earthquake that hit northwest of the Zagros Mountains in the region between Iran–Iraq border. This was one of the strongest seismic events to hit this region in the past century, and it resulted in an uplift area of about 3500 km2 between the High Zagros Fault (HZF) and Mountain Front Fault (MFF) with a maximum amount of 70 cm south of Miringe fault. A subsidence over an area of 1200 km2 with a maximum amount of 35 cm occurred near Vanisar village at the hanging wall of the HZF. Bayesian inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations suggests a source model at a depth between 14 and 20 km that is consistent with the existence of a decoupling horizon southwest edge of the northern portion of the Zagros Mountains near the MFF. Moreover, we present evidence for a number of coseismically induced rockslides and landslides, the majority of them which occurred along or close to pre-existing faults, causing decorrelation in differential interferograms. Exploiting the offset-tracking technique, we estimated surface motion by up to 34 and 10 m in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, due to lateral spreading on a big coseismic-induced landslide near Mela-Kabod. Field observations also revealed several zones of en echelon fractures and crack zones developed along a pre-existing fault passing through Qasr-e Shirin City, which exhibited secondary surface slip by up to 14 cm along its strike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Coherence Difference Analysis of Sentinel-1 SAR Interferogram to Identify Earthquake-Induced Disasters in Urban Areas
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081318 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
This study proposes a workflow that enables the accurate identification of earthquake-induced damage zones by using coherence image pairs of the Sentinel-1 satellite before and after an earthquake event. The workflow uses interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing to account for coherence variations [...] Read more.
This study proposes a workflow that enables the accurate identification of earthquake-induced damage zones by using coherence image pairs of the Sentinel-1 satellite before and after an earthquake event. The workflow uses interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) processing to account for coherence variations between coseismic and preseismic image pairs. The coherence difference between two image pairs is useful information to detect specific disasters in a regional-scale area after an earthquake event. To remove background effects such as the atmospheric effect and ordinal surface changes, this study employs the two-step threshold method to develop the coseismic coherence difference (CCD) map for our analyses. Thirty-four Sentinel-1 images between January 2015 and February 2016 were collected to process 30 preseismic image pairs and two coseismic image pairs for assessing multiple types of disasters in Tainan City of southwestern Taiwan, where severe damages were observed after the Meinong earthquake event. The coseismic unwrapping phases were further calculated to estimate the surface displacement in east-west and vertical directions. Results in the CCD map agree well with the observations from post-earthquake field surveys. The workflow can accurately identify earthquake-induced land subsidence and surface displacements, even for areas with insufficient geological data or for areas that had been excluded from the liquefaction potential map. In addition, the CCD details the distribution of building damages and structure failures, which might be useful information for emergency actions applied to regional-scale problems. The conversion of 2D surface displacement reveals the complex behavior of geological activities during the earthquake. In the foothill area of Tainan City, the opposite surface displacements in local areas might be influenced by the axis activities of the Kuanmiao syncline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Sentinel Satellite for Geohazards Prevention)
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