Special Issue "Earth Radiation Budget"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Atmosphere Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Steven Dewitte
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussel, Belgium
Tel. +32-2-3730624
Interests: Earth Radiation Budget; atmospheric remote sensing; climate monitoring; weather forecast

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) at the top of the atmosphere describes how the Earth gains energy from the Sun and loses energy to space through reflection of solar radiation and the emission of thermal radiation. The ERB is measured from space with dedicated remote sensing instruments. Its long-term monitoring is of fundamental importance for understanding climate change.

The most fundamental quantity to be monitored is the Earth Energy Imbalance, which is closely related to Ocean Heat Content.

In periods of increasing atmospheric aerosol load, there appears to occur a shift in the natural El Nino/La Nina oscillation towards a preferred La Nina state. This corresponds to a decrease in the global temperature rise and regional shifts in the tropical precipitation.

For this Special Issue, original contributions are invited focusing on ERB remote sensing instruments for either

  • the establishment of past and current ERB Climate Data Records (CDRs)
  • the outlook for continued or improved future ERB monitoring
  • insight in climate change gained from the analysis of ERB CDRs.
Dr. Steven Dewitte
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Earth Radiation Budget
  • instrument design
  • data processing
  • Climate Data Record
  • data analysis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Decadal Changes of Earth’s Outgoing Longwave Radiation
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101539 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) at the top of the atmosphere quantifies how the earth gains energy from the sun and loses energy to space. Its monitoring is of fundamental importance for understanding ongoing climate change. In this paper, decadal changes of the [...] Read more.
The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) at the top of the atmosphere quantifies how the earth gains energy from the sun and loses energy to space. Its monitoring is of fundamental importance for understanding ongoing climate change. In this paper, decadal changes of the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) as measured by the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System from 2000 to 2018, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment from 1985 to 1998, and the High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder from 1985 to 2018 are analysed. The OLR has been rising since 1985, and correlates well with the rising global temperature. An observational estimate of the derivative of the OLR with respect to temperature of 2.93 +/− 0.3 W/m 2 K is obtained. The regional patterns of the observed OLR change from 1985–2000 to 2001–2017 show a warming pattern in the Northern Hemisphere in particular in the Arctic, as well as tropical cloudiness changes related to a strengthening of La Niña. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Generating High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Fractional Vegetation Cover by Fusing GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192324 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
As an important indicator to characterize the surface vegetation, fractional vegetation cover (FVC) with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential for earth surface process simulation. However, due to technical limitations and the influence of weather, it is difficult to generate temporally continuous FVC with [...] Read more.
As an important indicator to characterize the surface vegetation, fractional vegetation cover (FVC) with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential for earth surface process simulation. However, due to technical limitations and the influence of weather, it is difficult to generate temporally continuous FVC with high spatio-temporal resolution based on a single remote-sensing data source. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of generating high spatio-temporal resolution FVC based on the fusion of GaoFen-1 Wide Field View (GF-1 WFV) data and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Two fusion strategies were employed to identify a suitable fusion method: (i) fusing reflectance data from GF-1 WFV and MODIS firstly and then estimating FVC from the reflectance fusion result (strategy FC, Fusion_then_FVC). (ii) fusing the FVC estimated from GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data directly (strategy CF, FVC_then_Fusion). The FVC generated using strategies FC and CF were evaluated based on FVC estimated from the real GF-1 WFV data and the field survey FVC, respectively. The results indicated that strategy CF achieved higher accuracies with less computational cost than those of strategy FC both in the comparisons with FVC estimated from the real GF-1 WFV (CF:R2 = 0.9580, RMSE = 0.0576; FC: R2 = 0.9345, RMSE = 0.0719) and the field survey FVC data (CF: R2 = 0.8138, RMSE = 0.0985; FC: R2 = 0.7173, RMSE = 0.1214). Strategy CF preserved spatial details more accurately than strategy FC and had a lower probability of generating abnormal values. It could be concluded that fusing GF-1 WFV and MODIS data for generating high spatio-temporal resolution FVC with good quality was feasible, and strategy CF was more suitable for generating FVC given its advantages in estimation accuracy and computational efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Open AccessArticle
RAVAN: CubeSat Demonstration for Multi-Point Earth Radiation Budget Measurements
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070796 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) 3U CubeSat mission is a pathfinder to demonstrate technologies for the measurement of Earth’s radiation budget, the quantification of which is critical for predicting the future course of climate change. A specific motivation is the [...] Read more.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) 3U CubeSat mission is a pathfinder to demonstrate technologies for the measurement of Earth’s radiation budget, the quantification of which is critical for predicting the future course of climate change. A specific motivation is the need for lower-cost technology alternatives that could be used for multi-point constellation measurements of Earth outgoing radiation. RAVAN launched 11 November 2016, into a nearly 600-km, Sun-synchronous orbit, and collected data for over 20 months. RAVAN successfully demonstrates two key technologies. The first is the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as absorbers in broadband radiometers for measuring Earth’s outgoing radiation and the total solar irradiance. VACNT forests are arguably the blackest material known and have an extremely flat spectral response over a wide wavelength range, from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. As radiometer absorbers, they have greater sensitivity for a given time constant and are more compact than traditional cavity absorbers. The second technology demonstrated is a pair of gallium phase-change black body cells that are used as a stable reference to monitor the degradation of RAVAN’s radiometer sensors on orbit. Four radiometers (two VACNT, two cavity), the pair of gallium black bodies, and associated electronics are accommodated in the payload of an agile 3U CubeSat bus that allows for routine solar and deep-space attitude maneuvers, which are essential for calibrating the Earth irradiance measurements. The radiometers show excellent long-term stability over the course of the mission and a high correlation between the VACNT and cavity radiometer technologies. Short-term variability—at greater than the tenths-of-a-Watt/m2 needed for climate accuracy—is a challenge that remains, consistent with insufficient thermal knowledge and control on a 3U CubeSat. There are also VACNT–cavity biases of 3% and 6% in the Total and SW channels, respectively, which would have to be overcome in a future mission. Although one of the black bodies failed after four months, the other provided a repeatable standard for the duration of the project. We present representative measurements from the mission and demonstrate how the radiometer time series can be used to reconstruct outgoing radiation spatial information. Improvements to the technology and approach that would lead to better performance and greater accuracy in future missions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Open AccessArticle
Decadal Changes of the Reflected Solar Radiation and the Earth Energy Imbalance
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(6), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11060663 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Decadal changes of the Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) as measured by CERES from 2000 to 2018 are analysed. For both polar regions, changes of the clear-sky RSR correlate well with changes of the Sea Ice Extent. In the Arctic, sea ice is clearly [...] Read more.
Decadal changes of the Reflected Solar Radiation (RSR) as measured by CERES from 2000 to 2018 are analysed. For both polar regions, changes of the clear-sky RSR correlate well with changes of the Sea Ice Extent. In the Arctic, sea ice is clearly melting, and as a result the earth is becoming darker under clear-sky conditions. However, the correlation between the global all-sky RSR and the polar clear-sky RSR changes is low. Moreover, the RSR and the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) changes are negatively correlated, so they partly cancel each other. The increase of the OLR is higher then the decrease of the RSR. Also the incoming solar radiation is decreasing. As a result, over the 2000–2018 period the Earth Energy Imbalance (EEI) appears to have a downward trend of −0.16 ± 0.11 W/m2dec. The EEI trend agrees with a trend of the Ocean Heat Content Time Derivative of −0.26 ± 0.06 (1 σ ) W/m2dec. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Open AccessArticle
Entrance Pupil Irradiance Estimating Model for a Moon-Based Earth Radiation Observatory Instrument
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11050583 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A Moon-based Earth radiation observatory (MERO) could provide a longer-term continuous measurement of radiation exiting the Earth system compared to current satellite-based observatories. In order to parameterize the detector for such a newly-proposed MERO, the evaluation of the instrument’s entrance pupil irradiance (EPI) [...] Read more.
A Moon-based Earth radiation observatory (MERO) could provide a longer-term continuous measurement of radiation exiting the Earth system compared to current satellite-based observatories. In order to parameterize the detector for such a newly-proposed MERO, the evaluation of the instrument’s entrance pupil irradiance (EPI) is of great importance. The motivation of this work is to build an EPI estimating model for a simplified single-pixel MERO instrument. The rationale of this model is to sum the contributions of every location in the MERO-viewed region on the Earth’s top of atmosphere (TOA) to the MERO sensor’s EPI, taking into account the anisotropy in the longwave radiance at the Earth TOA. Such anisotropy could be characterized by the TOA anisotropic factors, which can be derived from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) angular distribution models (ADMs). As an application, we estimated the shortwave (SW) (0.3–5 µm) and longwave (LW) (5–200 µm) EPIs for a hypothetic MERO instrument located at the Apollo 15 landing site. Results show that the SW EPI varied from 0 to 0.065 W/m2, while the LW EPI ranged between 0.061 and 0.075 W/m2 from 1 to 29 October, 2017. We also utilized this model to predict the SW and LW EPIs for any given location within the MERO-deployable region (region of 80.5°W–80.5°E and 81.5°S–81.5°N on the nearside of the Moon) for the future 18.6 years from October 2017 to June 2036. Results suggest that the SW EPI will vary between 0 and 0.118 W/m2, while the LW EPI will range from 0.056 to 0.081 W/m2. Though the EPI estimating model in this study was built for a simplistic single-pixel instrument, it could eventually be extended and improved in order to estimate the EPI for a multi-pixel MERO sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Open AccessArticle
Interdependent Dynamics of LAI-Albedo across the Roofing Landscapes: Mongolian and Tibetan Plateaus
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071159 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Tibetan Plateau (TP) have experienced higher-than-global average warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them are the leaf area index (LAI) and albedo, which play a fundamental role in understanding [...] Read more.
The Mongolian Plateau (MP) and Tibetan Plateau (TP) have experienced higher-than-global average warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them are the leaf area index (LAI) and albedo, which play a fundamental role in understanding many causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. Here, we focused on the spatiotemporal changes of LAI, albedo, and their spatiotemporal relationships on the two roofing landscapes in Eurasia. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated the spatiotemporal changes of albedo(VIS, NIR and SHO) and LAI from 2000 through 2016. We found that there existed a general negative logarithmic relationship between LAI and three measures of albedo on both plateaus. No significant relationship was found for LAI-albedoNIR on the TP, due to more complex land surface canopy characteristics affected by the NIR reflection there. During 2000–2016, overall, annual mean LAI increased significantly by 119.40 × 103 km2 on the MP and by 28.35 × 103 km2 on the TP, while the decreased areas for annual mean albedoVIS were 585.59 × 103 km2 and 235.73 × 103 km2 on the MP and TP, respectively. More importantly, the LAI-albedo relationships varied substantially across the space and over time, with mismatches found in some parts of the landscapes. Substantial additional efforts with observational and/or experimental investigations are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for these relationships, including the influences of vegetation characteristics and disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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Open AccessArticle
Radiation Component Calculation and Energy Budget Analysis for the Korean Peninsula Region
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071147 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, a radiation component calculation algorithm was developed using channel data from the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) and meteorological data from the Unified Model (UM) Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS). In addition, the energy budget of the Korean [...] Read more.
In this study, a radiation component calculation algorithm was developed using channel data from the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) and meteorological data from the Unified Model (UM) Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS). In addition, the energy budget of the Korean Peninsula region in 2016 was calculated and its regional differences were analyzed. Radiation components derived using the algorithm were calibrated using the broadband radiation component data from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) to improve their accuracy. The calculated radiation components and the CERES data showed an annual mean percent bias of less than 3.5% and a high correlation coefficient of over 0.98. The energy budget of the Korean Peninsula region was −2.4 Wm−2 at the top of the atmosphere (RT), −14.5 Wm−2 at the surface (RS), and 12.1 Wm−2 in the atmosphere (RA), with regional energy budget differences. The Seoul region had a high surface temperature (289.5 K) and a RS of −33.4 Wm−2 (surface emission), whereas the Sokcho region had a low surface temperature (284.7 K) and a RS of 5.0 Wm−2 (surface absorption), for a difference of 38.5 Wm−2. In short, regions with relatively high surface temperatures tended to show energy emission, and regions with relatively low surface temperatures tended to show energy absorption. Such regional energy imbalances can cause weather and climate changes and bring about meteorological disasters, and thus research on detecting energy budget changes must be continued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Radiation Budget)
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