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Special Issue "Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Atmosphere Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Samo Stanič

University of Nova Gorica, 5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: atmospheric research; R&D of instrumentation for atmospheric remote sensing; experimental astroparticle and high energy physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Atmospheric aerosols are known to directly or indirectly influence global and regional climate by absorbing or scattering solar radiation and thus influencing Earth’s radiation budget, as well as by modifying the processes in the clouds. Improved knowledge on aerosol particle composition and aging and their corresponding optical properties is paramount for understanding their role in regional climate change and weather phenomena. Optical properties of aerosols depend on their micro-physical properties and chemical composition, which also influence their mixing and aging characteristics. Aerosol hygroscopicity, beside affecting their optical properties, also allows them to act as condensation nuclei in clouds, thus indirectly modifying cloud processes.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide new answers regarding atmospheric properties which may be affected by or can be investigated using atmospheric aerosols and their correlation to environmental problems such as global warming and propagation of pollutants using remote sensing techniques as primary investigation tools. The proposed topics include the investigation of aerosol optical and micro-physical properties, the formation of secondary aerosols the relationship between aerosols and water vapor, as well the investigation of atmospheric structures.

Prof. Samo Stanič
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Remote Sensing
  • Aerosols
  • Water Vapor
  • Atmospheric Parameters
  • Atmospheric Structures
  • Air Flows

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Observations of Dust–Cloud Interactions Based on Polarization and Raman Lidar Measurements
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071017
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Dust aerosols have significant impact on the environment and climate through long-range transport. We report, in this paper, a case of dust–cloud interaction process using combined measurements of a ground-based polarization and Raman (PR) lidar systems, and implemented by the spaceborne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar [...] Read more.
Dust aerosols have significant impact on the environment and climate through long-range transport. We report, in this paper, a case of dust–cloud interaction process using combined measurements of a ground-based polarization and Raman (PR) lidar systems, and implemented by the spaceborne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar observations. The dust event occurred on 14 March 2009 over East Asia. During the two hours of observing time, the ground-based lidar observed an ongoing process of decreasing of the depolarization ratio (DR) accompanied by the increase of the water vapor simultaneously, indicating a dust–cloud interaction and particle transformation. CALIPSO measurements also found similar layers of dusts and clouds over lands and oceans with properties similar to the ground based lidar measurements. Our observation was a real-time dust–cloud process with the observation of occurrence of particle transformation. The depolarization reduced from 0.2 to 0.1 corresponding to a change of aspect ratio from 1.2 to 1.1. A discussion of a dust–cloud interaction in terms of three-stage cloud processes is made based on back-trajectory analyses and lidar observations. The result shows that dust aerosols decrease the cloud extinction coefficient by 41% but increase the cloud optical depth (COD) of water cloud by 12.79%, compared with that of pure water clouds. Furthermore, if dust aerosols participate as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in cloud physical processes, then they significantly reduce the size of the cloud droplet by 44–79%. Finally, based on three-year collocated CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements from 2007 to 2010, we found approximately one-third of clouds are originally dusty in the spring over the Pacific Coast areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained by Raman Lidar and Comprehensive Analyses with Meteorological Parameters in Xi’an
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060967
Received: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
To evaluate the potential of Raman lidar observations for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV), PWV variations and distribution characteristics were investigated in Xi’an (34.233°N, 108.911°E), and its comparisons with meteorological parameters were also analysed. Comparisons of lidar PWV with radiosonde PWV verified the [...] Read more.
To evaluate the potential of Raman lidar observations for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV), PWV variations and distribution characteristics were investigated in Xi’an (34.233°N, 108.911°E), and its comparisons with meteorological parameters were also analysed. Comparisons of lidar PWV with radiosonde PWV verified the ability and accuracy of using Raman lidars for PWV measurements. The diurnal and monthly variation trends in PWV in different layers are first discussed via the statistical analysis of lidar data from November 2013 to July 2016; different proportions of PWV were found in different layers, and the PWV in each layer presented a slight diurnal change trend and consistent seasonal variation, which was relatively rich in summer, less so in spring and autumn, and relatively deficient in winter. Furthermore, correlation analyses between lidar PWV and meteorological parameters are explored. Water vapor pressure and surface temperature revealed the same inter-seasonal oscillation of PWV, with a correlation coefficient of ~0.90. However, incomplete synchronization was found between PWV and relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Higher humidity appeared in the late summer and the beginning of autumn of each year, which was also the case for precipitation and precipitation efficiency. In addition, atmospheric water vapor density profiles and the obtained PWV by Raman lidar are discussed employing a rainfall case, and a comprehensive analysis with meteorological parameters is undertaken. The intensifying characteristics of vertical change in water vapor and the accumulation of PWV in the lower troposphere can be captured by lidar before the onset of rainfall. In contrast to the obvious diurnal change trend, such meteorological parameters as relative humidity, water vapor pressure, and dew-point temperature difference are accompanied with stable trends with a change rate of close to 0 in the rainfall processes; they also show high correlated variations with lidar PWV. Thus, with the advantage of lidar detection, investigation of water vapor profiles and PWV by Raman lidar, and the comprehensive correlation analyses with synchronic meteorological parameters can prove to be good indications of rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Aerosol and Meteorological Parameters Associated with the Intense Dust Event of 15 April 2015 over Beijing, China
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060957
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The northeastern parts of China, including Beijing city, the capital of China, were hit by an intense dust storm on 15 April 2015. The present paper discusses aerosol and meteorological parameters associated with this dust storm event. The back trajectory clearly shows that [...] Read more.
The northeastern parts of China, including Beijing city, the capital of China, were hit by an intense dust storm on 15 April 2015. The present paper discusses aerosol and meteorological parameters associated with this dust storm event. The back trajectory clearly shows that the dust originated from Inner Mongolia, the border of China, and Mongolia regions. Pronounced changes in aerosol and meteorological parameters along the dust track were observed. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) with low Ångström exponent (AE) are characteristics of coarse-mode dominated dust particles in the wavelength range 440–870 nm during the dusty day. During dust storm, dominance of coarse aerosol concentrations is observed in the aerosol size distribution (ASD). The single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved from AERONET station shows increase with higher wavelength on the dusty day, and is found to be higher compared to the days prior to and after the dust event, supported with high values of the real part and decrease in the imaginary part of the refractive index (RI). With regard to meteorological parameters, during the dusty day, CO volume mixing ratio (COVMR) is observed to decrease, from the surface up to mid-altitude, compared with the non-dusty days due to strong winds. O3 volume mixing ratio (O3VMR) enhances at the increasing altitudes (at the low-pressure levels), and decreases near the surface at the pressure levels 500–925 hPa during the dust event, compared with the non-dusty periods. An increase in the H2O mass mixing ratio (H2OMMR) is observed during dusty periods at the higher altitudes equivalent to the pressure levels 500 and 700 hPa. The mid-altitude relative humidity (RH) is observed to decrease at the pressure levels 700 and 925 hPa during sand storm days. With the onset of the dust storm event, the RH reduces at the surface level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Investigation and Analysis of All-Day Atmospheric Water Vapor Content over Xi’an Using Raman Lidar and Sunphotometer Measurements
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060951
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
All-day atmospheric water vapor content measurements determined by Raman lidar and a sunphotometer were combined to investigate the all-day variation characteristics in the water vapor distribution in Xi’an, China (34.233°N, 108.911°E). To enhance the daytime lidar performance, the wavelet threshold de-noising method is [...] Read more.
All-day atmospheric water vapor content measurements determined by Raman lidar and a sunphotometer were combined to investigate the all-day variation characteristics in the water vapor distribution in Xi’an, China (34.233°N, 108.911°E). To enhance the daytime lidar performance, the wavelet threshold de-noising method is used to filter out the strong solar background light, and effective denoised results are demonstrated with the following optimization: wavelet sym6, the improved threshold function, and the improved threshold selection. The denoised system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the water vapor daytime measurement is validated, with an enhancement of ~3.4 times up to a height of 3 km compared to that of the original signal. The time series of the atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio profiles and the obtained precipitable water vapor (PWV) measured by Raman lidar are used to reveal the temporal and spatial variations in water vapor, and the comparisons with the total column water vapor content (TCWV) measured by a sunphotometer validate the daytime variation trend of the water vapor. All-day continuous observations clearly present a consistent variation trend in the water vapor between the sunphotometer and Raman lidar measurements. The correlation analysis between TCWV and PWV at the layers below 850 hPa and below 700 hPa yields a good positive correlation coefficient (>0.75), indicating that PWV determination in the bottom layer by Raman lidar can directly reflect the variations in the total water vapor content. Moreover, different diurnal variation trends in water vapor are also observed, that is, a downward trend from the afternoon to the night, or a tendency of being high in the morning and afternoon and low at noon, demonstrating the high temporal-spatial variation characteristics of water vapor and close correlation with weather changes. The results reflected and validated that the diurnal variation in water vapor is complicated and can be an indicator of the weather to a certain extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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Open AccessArticle
Depolarization Ratio Profiles Calibration and Observations of Aerosol and Cloud in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Polarization Raman Lidar
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030378
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A brief description of the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL) system is provided. To calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio, the concept of “Δ90°-calibration” is applied in this study. This effective and accurate calibration method is adjusted [...] Read more.
A brief description of the Water vapor, Cloud and Aerosol Lidar (WACAL) system is provided. To calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio, the concept of “ Δ 90 ° -calibration” is applied in this study. This effective and accurate calibration method is adjusted according to the design of WACAL. Error calculations and analysis of the gain ratio, calibrated volume linear depolarization ratio and particle linear depolarization ratio are provided as well. In this method, the influences of the gain ratio, the rotation angle of the plane of polarization and the polarizing beam splitter are discussed in depth. Two groups of measurements with half wave plate (HWP) at angles of (0 ° , 45 ° ) and (22.5 ° , −22.5 ° ) are operated to calibrate the volume linear depolarization ratio. Then, the particle linear depolarization ratios measured by WACAL and CALIOP (the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) during the simultaneous observations were compared. Good agreements are found. The calibration method was applied in the third Tibetan Plateau Experiment of Atmospheric Sciences (TIPEX III) in 2013 and 2014 in China. Vertical profiles of the particle depolarization ratio of clouds and aerosol in the Tibetan Plateau were measured with WACAL in Litang (30.03° N, 100.28° E, 3949 m above sea level (a.s.l.)) in 2013 and Naqu (31.48° N, 92.06° E, 4508 m a.s.l.) in 2014. Then an analysis on the polarizing properties of the aerosol, clouds and cirrus over the Tibetan Plateau is provided. The particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds varies from 0.36 to 0.52, with a mean value of 0.44 ± 0.04. Cirrus clouds occurred between 5.2 and 12 km above ground level (a.g.l.). The cloud thickness ranges from 0.12 to 2.55 km with a mean thickness of 1.22 ± 0.70 km. It is found that the particle depolarization ratio of cirrus clouds become larger as the height increases. However, the increase rate of the particle depolarization ratio becomes smaller as the height increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
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