Special Issue "Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine"

A special issue of Quantum Beam Science (ISSN 2412-382X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Atushi Tanaka Website E-Mail
Kansai Photon Science Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate,National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kyoto, Japan
Interests: radiation genetics; mutation in higher plants; mutation breeding; radiation application in medicine and agriculture

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

We would like to announce a special issue on applications of ion beams within the fields of biology and medicine, presenting innovative new technologies and pioneering new work in the life sciences. We invite original papers and reviews on the characteristics of ion beams and any relevant applications.

Ion beams, a type of quantum beam, are frequently used in the fields of biology and medicine. Their applications can be divided into two groups: First, ‘direct use’, where ion beams directly affect living cells, primarily through DNA damage. Although any ionizing radiation or quantum beam is known to cause DNA damages through excitation and ionization, ion beams transmit higher energies than other radiation types, which can effectively induce DNA damage, causing cell death, mutations, or evolution. For this reason, ion beams could be the best tool to induce genetic mutation, including for mutation breeding. Ion beams can also induce cell death, which is useful for cancer therapy. Micro ion beams with protons or other heavy particles have become a unique and powerful technology to provide insights on cell and organ development with influence on the cell except for DNA damage.

Other uses can be referred to as ‘indirect use’ of ion beams, and work through creating a radioisotope (radionuclide; RI). Most positron emission nuclides are generated by means of proton and heavy ion beam irradiation, which produce new RIs such as C-11, N-13, F-18, Cu-64, Br-76, As-211, and so on. These new RIs are used for cancer diagnosis or therapy; and positron imaging of plants to provide quantitative estimation of kinetics and movement of nutrients, i.e., photoassimilates and nitrogen fixation. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and related techniques can detect and trace minor elements, such as heavy metals in a cell or tissue, and are widely used in medicine, dentistry, and environmental science.

Thus, we welcome contributions on topics such as

  • Biological effects of ion beams in biology or medicine
  • Characteristics of ion beams used for biology or medicine
  • Ion beam induced mutation/ion beam breeding
  • Micro-ion beams used in biological studies
  • Positron-emitting tracer imaging
  • Ion beam induced radioisotopes for medical use
  • PIXE, micro PIXE, and PIGE
  • Novel techniques using ion beams for applications in biology and medicine

With these aspects in mind, this special issue will provide a valuable reference for the state-of-the-art ion beams applied in the fields of biology and medicine, and provide the possibility to uncover new principles and novel uses of ion beams.

Dr. Atushi Tanaka
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Quantum Beam Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biological effects of ion beams in biology or medicine
  • Characteristics of ion beams used for biology or medicine
  • Ion beam induced mutation
  • Ion beam breeding
  • Micro-ion beams
  • Positron-emitting tracer imaging
  • Ion beam induced radioisotopes for medical use
  • PIXE, micro PIXE, and PIGE
  • Novel techniques using ion beams for applications in biology and medicine

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Analysis of Carbon Ion-Induced Mutations in DNA Repair-Deficient Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3030014 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
Mutations caused by ion beams have been well-studied in plants, including ornamental flowers, rice, and algae. It has been shown that ion beams have several significantly interesting features, such as a high biological effect and unique mutation spectrum, which is in contrast to [...] Read more.
Mutations caused by ion beams have been well-studied in plants, including ornamental flowers, rice, and algae. It has been shown that ion beams have several significantly interesting features, such as a high biological effect and unique mutation spectrum, which is in contrast to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as gamma rays. In this study, the effects of double strand breaks and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) caused by ion-beam irradiation were examined. We irradiated repair-gene-inactive strains rad52, ogg1, and msh2 using carbon ion beams, analyzed the lethality and mutagenicity, and characterized the mutations. High-LET carbon ion-beam radiation was found to cause oxidative base damage, such as 8-oxodG, which can lead to mutations. The present observations suggested that nucleotide incorporation of oxidative damage gave only a limited effect on cell viability and genome fidelity. The ion-beam mutations occurred predominantly in 5′-ACA-3′ sequences, and we detected a hotspot at around +79 to +98 in URA3 in wild-type and mutant lines, suggesting the presence of a mutation-susceptible region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy-Ion Microbeams for Biological Science: Development of System and Utilization for Biological Experiments in QST-Takasaki
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020013 - 14 Jun 2019
Abstract
Target irradiation of biological material with a heavy-ion microbeam is a useful means to analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of heavy-ion irradiation on cells and individuals. At QST-Takasaki, there are two heavy-ion microbeam systems, one using beam collimation and the other beam [...] Read more.
Target irradiation of biological material with a heavy-ion microbeam is a useful means to analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of heavy-ion irradiation on cells and individuals. At QST-Takasaki, there are two heavy-ion microbeam systems, one using beam collimation and the other beam focusing. They are installed on the vertical beam lines of the azimuthally-varying-field cyclotron of the TIARA facility for analyzing heavy-ion radiation effects on biological samples. The collimating heavy-ion microbeam system is used in a wide range of biological research not only in regard to cultured cells but also small individuals, such as silkworms, nematode C. elegans, and medaka fish. The focusing microbeam system was designed and developed to perform more precise target irradiation that cannot be achieved through collimation. This review describes recent updates of the collimating heavy ion microbeam system and the research performed using it. In addition, a brief outline of the focusing microbeam system and current development status is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Localization of Aluminum in Epidermal Cells of Mature Tea Leaves
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020009 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
We have determined the distribution of aluminum in the epidermal cells of mature tea leaves using micro-beam particle-induced X-ray emission. The observed pattern of aluminum distribution in the epidermal cells suggests that aluminum exists in cell walls. Silicon exhibits a distribution that is [...] Read more.
We have determined the distribution of aluminum in the epidermal cells of mature tea leaves using micro-beam particle-induced X-ray emission. The observed pattern of aluminum distribution in the epidermal cells suggests that aluminum exists in cell walls. Silicon exhibits a distribution that is nearly identical to that of aluminum, suggesting co-localization with aluminum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Biological Effect of Cluster Ion Beams in Bacillus subtilis Spores
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020008 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cluster ion beams have unique features in energy deposition, but their biological effects are yet to be examined. In this study, we employed bacterial spores as a model organism, established an irradiation method, and examined the lethal effect of 2 MeV C, 4 [...] Read more.
Cluster ion beams have unique features in energy deposition, but their biological effects are yet to be examined. In this study, we employed bacterial spores as a model organism, established an irradiation method, and examined the lethal effect of 2 MeV C, 4 MeV C2, and 6 MeV C3 ion beams. The lethal effect per particle (per number of molecular ions) was not significantly different between cluster and monomer ion beams. The relative biological effectiveness and inactivation cross section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) suggested that the single atoms of 2 MeV C deposited enough energy to kill the spores, and, therefore, there was no significant difference between the cluster and monomer ion beams in the cell killing effect under this experimental condition. We also considered the behavior of the atoms of cluster ions in the spores after the dissociation of cluster ions into monomer ions by losing bonding electrons through inelastic collisions with atoms on the surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to provide a basis for examining the biological effect of cluster ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Radioisotope Imaging Technology for Plant Science Research in Japan
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3030018 - 25 Aug 2019
Abstract
Soil provides most of the essential elements required for the growth of plants. These elements are absorbed by the roots and then transported to the leaves via the xylem. Photoassimilates and other nutrients are translocated from the leaves to the maturing organs via [...] Read more.
Soil provides most of the essential elements required for the growth of plants. These elements are absorbed by the roots and then transported to the leaves via the xylem. Photoassimilates and other nutrients are translocated from the leaves to the maturing organs via the phloem. Non-essential elements are also transported via the same route. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the movement of these elements across the plant body is of paramount importance in plant science research. Radioisotope imaging is often utilized to understand element kinetics in the plant body. Live plant imaging is one of the recent advancements in this field. In this article, we recapitulate the developments in radioisotope imaging technology for plant science research in Japanese research groups. This collation provides useful insights into the application of radioisotope imaging technology in wide domains including plant science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
PIXE and Its Applications to Elemental Analysis
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020012 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
When charged particles collide with atoms, atomic inner shell electrons become ionized, producing characteristic X-rays. This phenomenon is called particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The characteristic X-ray production cross-sections from PIXE are very large, and the characteristic X-rays of elements contained in a sample [...] Read more.
When charged particles collide with atoms, atomic inner shell electrons become ionized, producing characteristic X-rays. This phenomenon is called particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The characteristic X-ray production cross-sections from PIXE are very large, and the characteristic X-rays of elements contained in a sample are easily measured by a Silicon detector with a high energy resolution. Hence, sodium to uranium can be detected with a sensitivity of ppb~ppm, and PIXE has been applied to trace element analysis. Scanning ion beams can be used to obtain the spatial distributions of elements in a sample. Furthermore, the distributions of elements inside a cell can be investigated using micro ion beams. PIXE analysis is a very useful technique for multi-elemental analysis and is now widely used in many fields and applications, including chemistry, medicine, biology, archaeology, agriculture, materials science, fisheries science, geology, petrology, environmental study, contamination monitoring, resource search, semiconductors, metal, astrophysics, earth science, criminal investigations, and food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Studies on Application of Ion Beam Breeding to Industrial Microorganisms at TIARA
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020011 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mutation-breeding technologies are useful tools for the development of new biological resources in plants and microorganisms. In Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Japan, ion beams were explored as novel [...] Read more.
Mutation-breeding technologies are useful tools for the development of new biological resources in plants and microorganisms. In Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Japan, ion beams were explored as novel mutagens. The mutagenic effects of various ion beams on eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms were described and their application in breeding technology for industrial microorganisms were discussed. Generally, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depended on the liner energy transfer (LET) and the highest RBE values were obtained with 12C5+ ion beams. The highest mutation frequencies were obtained at radiation doses that gave 1%–10% of surviving fraction. By using 12C5+ ion beams in this dose range, many microorganisms have been improved successfully at TIARA. Therefore, ion-beam breeding technology for microorganisms will have applications in many industries, including stable food production, sustainable agriculture, environmental conservation, and development of energy resources in the near future. Moreover, genome analyses of the ion-beam-induced mutants are in progress to clear the differences of mutational functions induced by different LET radiations in microorganisms. Further characterizations of mutations induced by different LET radiations will facilitate more effective use of ion beams in microorganisms breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Frequency and Spectrum of Radiation-Induced Mutations Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing Analyses of Plants
Quantum Beam Sci. 2019, 3(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs3020007 - 30 Apr 2019
Abstract
Mutation breeding and functional genomics studies of mutant populations have made important contributions to plant research involving the application of radiation. The frequency and spectrum of induced mutations have long been regarded as the crucial determinants of the efficiency of the development and [...] Read more.
Mutation breeding and functional genomics studies of mutant populations have made important contributions to plant research involving the application of radiation. The frequency and spectrum of induced mutations have long been regarded as the crucial determinants of the efficiency of the development and use of mutant populations. Systematic studies regarding the mutation frequency and spectrum, including genetic and genomic analyses, have recently resulted in considerable advances. These studies have consistently shown that the mutation frequency and spectrum are affected by diverse factors, including radiation type, linear energy transfer, and radiation dose, as well as the plant tissue type and condition. Moreover, the whole-genome sequencing of mutant individuals based on next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled the genome-wide quantification of mutation frequencies according to DNA mutation types as well as the elucidation of mutation mechanisms based on sequence characteristics. These studies will contribute to the development of a highly efficient and more controlled mutagenesis method relevant for the customized research of plants. We herein review the characteristics of radiation-induced mutations in plants, mainly focusing on recent whole-genome sequencing analyses as well as factors affecting the mutation frequency and spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine)
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