Special Issue "Shape Memory Polymers III"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Performance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Wei Min Huang
Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore
Interests: shape memory materials and technology; sensors and actuators; 4D printing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rui Xiao
Website
Guest Editor
College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai Univeristy, 8 Focheng Road, Nanjing 211100, China
Interests: shape-memory polymers; hydrogels; amorphous polymers; constitutive modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Qi Ge
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Avenue, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: 4D printing; smart materials and structures; 3D printing; mechanics of soft materials; soft robotics; flexible electronics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The shape memory phenomenon refers to the ability of a material to recover its permanent shape, but only in the presence of the right stimulus, such as heat, chemicals, or light. This kind of shape memory effect (SME) has been reported in numerous polymeric materials (including many engineering polymers and newly developed ones). The polymers with the SME are termed shape memory polymers (SMPs). As a SMP is able not only to maintain the temporary shape, but also to respond to the right stimulus when it is applied, via shape-shifting, a seamless integration of the sensing and actuation functions is achieved within one single piece of material.

We have seen a number of applications of SMPs, from heat shrink tube and anti-counterfeit label to comfort fitting and 4D printing. However, we believe that these applications are merely the starting point, as the SMPs are potentially able to reshape product design, fabrication, and recycling in many ways.  The purpose of this Special Issue is to report the most recent progress within this rapidly developed exciting field and to address all kinds of concerns regarding materials design, synthesis, characterization, modelling/simulation, and application. Both review and original papers are invited for this Special Issue.

Dr. Wei Min Huang
Dr. Rui Xiao
Dr. Qi Ge
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Shape memory polymer
  • Shape memory effect
  • Stimulus
  • Programming
  • Mechanism
  • Actuation
  • Sensing
  • Characterization
  • Simulation
  • 4D printing

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Long-Term Storage on Shape Memory Performance and Mechanical Behavior of Pre-stretched Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
Polymers 2019, 11(12), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11121978 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of storage at 40 °C on the shape memory performance and mechanical behavior of a pre-stretched commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This is to simulate the scenario in many applications. Although this is a very important [...] Read more.
In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of storage at 40 °C on the shape memory performance and mechanical behavior of a pre-stretched commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). This is to simulate the scenario in many applications. Although this is a very important topic in engineering practice, it has rarely been touched upon so far. The shape memory performance is characterized in terms of the shape fixity ratio (after up to one year of storage) and shape recovery ratio (upon heating to previous programming temperature). Programming in the mode of uniaxial tension is carried out at a temperature within the glass transition range to one of four prescribed programming strains (namely 10%, 20%, 40% and 80%). Also investigated is the residual strain after heating for shape recovery. The characterization of the mechanical behavior of programmed samples after storage for up to three months is via cyclic uniaxial tensile test. It is concluded that from an engineering application point view, for this particular PMMA, programming should be done at higher temperatures (i.e., above its Tg of 110 °C) in order to not only achieve reliable and better shape memory performance, but also minimize the influence of storage on the shape memory performance and mechanical behavior of the programmed material. This finding provides a useful guide for engineering applications of shape memory polymers, in particular based on the multiple-shape memory effect, temperature memory effect, and/or low temperature programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Open AccessArticle
Shape-Memory Metallopolymer Networks Based on a Triazole–Pyridine Ligand
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111889 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Shape memory polymers represent an interesting class of stimuli-responsive polymers. With their ability to memorize and recover their original shape, they could be useful in almost every area of our daily life. We herein present the synthesis of shape-memory metallopolymers in which the [...] Read more.
Shape memory polymers represent an interesting class of stimuli-responsive polymers. With their ability to memorize and recover their original shape, they could be useful in almost every area of our daily life. We herein present the synthesis of shape-memory metallopolymers in which the switching unit is designed by using bis(pyridine–triazole) metal complexes. The polymer networks were synthesized via free radical polymerization of methyl-, ethyl- or butyl-methacrylate, tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate and a methacrylate moiety of the triazole–pyridine ligand. By the addition of zinc(II) or cobalt(II) acetate it was possible to achieve metallopolymer networks featuring shape-memory abilities. The successful formation of the metal-ligand complex was proven by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the shape-recovery behavior was studied in detailed fashion and even triple-shape memory behavior could be revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Open AccessArticle
Additive Manufacturing of Information Carriers Based on Shape Memory Polyester Urethane
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061005 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-responsive materials, which are able to retain an imposed, temporary shape and recover the initial, permanent shape through an external stimulus like heat. In this work, a novel manufacturing method is introduced for thermoresponsive quick response (QR) code [...] Read more.
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-responsive materials, which are able to retain an imposed, temporary shape and recover the initial, permanent shape through an external stimulus like heat. In this work, a novel manufacturing method is introduced for thermoresponsive quick response (QR) code carriers, which originally were developed as anticounterfeiting technology. Motivated by the fact that earlier manufacturing processes were sometimes too time-consuming for production, filaments of a polyester urethane (PEU) with and without dye were extruded and processed into QR code carriers using fused filament fabrication (FFF). Once programmed, the distinct shape memory properties enabled a heating-initiated switching from non-decodable to machine-readable QR codes. The results demonstrate that FFF constitutes a promising additive manufacturing technology to create complex, filigree structures with adjustable horizontal and vertical print resolution and, thus, an excellent basis to realize further technically demanding application concepts for shape memory polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Open AccessArticle
In Situ Observation on Rate-Dependent Strain Localization of Thermo-Induced Shape Memory Polyurethane
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11060982 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In situ monotonic tensile experiments of thermo-induced shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) at different loading rates were carried out by the digital image correlation (DIC) method and infrared camera FLIR®-A655sc in natural convection (NC) and forced convection (FC) conditions, respectively. The multiform [...] Read more.
In situ monotonic tensile experiments of thermo-induced shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) at different loading rates were carried out by the digital image correlation (DIC) method and infrared camera FLIR®-A655sc in natural convection (NC) and forced convection (FC) conditions, respectively. The multiform strain localization of SMPU was observed by the DIC method, and the influence of thermo–mechanical coupling on the strain localization was analyzed by using the FLIR to measure the temperature field caused by the internal heat generation. The experimental results show that the strain localization mode strongly depends on the strain rate and convection condition, and the strain localization mode can be transformed by changing the convection condition from NC to FC. The competition mechanism between the strain hardening induced by the increasing loading rate and strain softening induced by the internal heat generation is indicated, the transition modes of strain localization are clarified, and the influences of thermo–mechanical coupling on shape memory effect are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Open AccessArticle
Shape Memory Behavior of Carbon Black-reinforced Trans-1,4-polyisoprene and Low-density Polyethylene Composites
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050807 - 06 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Shape memory composites of trans-1,4-polyisoprene (TPI) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with easily achievable transition temperatures were prepared by a simple physical blending method. Carbon black (CB) was introduced to improve the mechanical properties of the TPI/LDPE composites. The mechanical, cure, thermal and shape [...] Read more.
Shape memory composites of trans-1,4-polyisoprene (TPI) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with easily achievable transition temperatures were prepared by a simple physical blending method. Carbon black (CB) was introduced to improve the mechanical properties of the TPI/LDPE composites. The mechanical, cure, thermal and shape memory properties of the TPI/LDPE/CB composites were investigated in this study. In these composites, the crosslinked network generated in both the TPI and LDPE portions acted as a fixed domain, while the crystalline regions of the TPI and LDPE portions acted as a reversible domain in shape memory behavior. We found the mechanical properties of composites were promoted significantly with an increase of CB content, accompanied with the deterioration of shape memory properties of composites. When CB dosage was 5 parts per hundred of rubber composites (phr), best shape memory property of composites was obtained with a shape fixity ratio of 95.1% and a shape recovery ratio of 95.0%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Open AccessArticle
Controllable Crimpness of Animal Hairs via Water-Stimulated Shape Fixation for Regulation of Thermal Insulation
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010172 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Animals living in extremely cold plateau areas have shown amazing ability to maintain their bodies warmth, a benefit of their hair’s unique structures and crimps. Investigation of hair crimps using a water-stimulated shape fixation effect would control the hair’s crimpness with a specific [...] Read more.
Animals living in extremely cold plateau areas have shown amazing ability to maintain their bodies warmth, a benefit of their hair’s unique structures and crimps. Investigation of hair crimps using a water-stimulated shape fixation effect would control the hair’s crimpness with a specific wetting-drying process thereafter, in order to achieve the regulation of hair thermal insulation. The mechanism of hair’s temporary shape fixation was revealed through FTIR and XRD characterizations for switching on and off the hydrogen bonds between macromolecules via penetration into and removal of aqueous molecules. The thermal insulation of hairs was regulated by managing the hair temporary crimps, that is, through managing the multiple reflectance of infrared light by hair hierarchical crimps from hair root to head. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Brief Review of the Shape Memory Phenomena in Polymers and Their Typical Sensor Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061049 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
In this brief review, an introduction of the underlying mechanisms for the shape memory effect (SME) and various shape memory phenomena in polymers is presented first. After that, a summary of typical applications in sensors based on either heating or wetting activated shape [...] Read more.
In this brief review, an introduction of the underlying mechanisms for the shape memory effect (SME) and various shape memory phenomena in polymers is presented first. After that, a summary of typical applications in sensors based on either heating or wetting activated shape recovery using largely commercial engineering polymers, which are programmed by means of in-plane pre-deformation (load applied in the length/width direction) or out-of-plane pre-deformation (load applied in the thickness direction), is presented. As demonstrated by a number of examples, many low-cost engineering polymers are well suited to, for instance, anti-counterfeit and over-heating/wetting monitoring applications via visual sensation and/or tactual sensation, and many existing technologies and products (e.g., holography, 3D printing, nano-imprinting, electro-spinning, lenticular lens, Fresnel lens, QR/bar code, Moiré pattern, FRID, structural coloring, etc.) can be integrated with the shape memory feature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Polymers III)
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