3D/4D Printing for Polymer Composites

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 3380

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Army Research Directorate, DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory South, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Interests: nano-enhanced damping composites; interface engineered nanocomposites; additively manufactured multifunctional composites; adaptive and responsive materials

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: additive manufacturing and 3D-printing; continuous improvement (Lean, Six Sigma, TOC); high-value manufacturing; industry 4.0, and digital manufacturing; operations and supply chain management; innovation, and process/product design management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has gained significant interest in recent years due to its potential for disruption. Significant advancements in 3D printing have enabled the use of stimuli-responsive polymers as printing material, allowing for printed 3D objects to change over time, also known as 4D printing. Of significant interest is the use of composite polymeric materials in 4D printing and their potential for introducing programmability and responsiveness to otherwise static printed objects.

This Special Issue is devoted to the publication of original research and comprehensive reviews on novel developments in the area of 4D printing of responsive polymer composites.

Dr. Frank Gardea
Dr. Ehsan Sabet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 4D printing
  • 3D printing
  • additive manufacturing
  • stimuli-responsive
  • material programming
  • multifunctional materials
  • polymer composites
  • active materials

Published Papers (2 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

19 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
3D Printing Soft Magnet: Binder Study for Vat Photopolymerization of Ferrosilicon Magnetic Composites
by Leah Okoruwa, Farzaneh Sameni, Pavel Borisov and Ehsan Sabet
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3482; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163482 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) masking is a 3D printing technique that can produce soft magnetic composite parts to high resolution and complexity for robotics and energy electronics applications. This additive manufacturing technique has the potential to produce larger, lighter-weight, more efficient, and more [...] Read more.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) masking is a 3D printing technique that can produce soft magnetic composite parts to high resolution and complexity for robotics and energy electronics applications. This additive manufacturing technique has the potential to produce larger, lighter-weight, more efficient, and more durable parts for automotive and mechanical applications. This study conducted a binder study to create a low-viscosity and stiff binder capable of loading at least 60 v/v% Fe-6.5 wt%Si particles. Percolation Theory was applied to anticipate the magnetic interaction of suspended particles. A series of binders were formulated, with adjustments to diluent ratios. The behavior of the binders was assessed by studying their rheological properties, conversion rates, and mechanical properties. A post-cure study was conducted across various energy settings using UV, thermal, and a combination of both energy sources to find the combination that provided the best mechanical properties. As a result, 64 v/v% Fe-6.5 wt%Si loading was achieved and cured using UV light of 405 nm wavelength. Vibrating Sample Spectroscopy (VSM) was used to characterize the composite’s magnetic behavior, and a significant increase in saturation magnetization and negligible change in coercivity was observed when the added load exceeded the percolation threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D/4D Printing for Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 14884 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Study on Impact of Binder Formulation on Green Body Strength of Vat-Photopolymerisation 3D Printed Silica Ceramics Used in Investment Casting
by Ozkan Basar, Varghese Paul Veliyath, Fatih Tarak and Ehsan Sabet
Polymers 2023, 15(14), 3141; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15143141 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
Additive ceramics manufacturing with vat-photopolymerisation (VP) is a developing field, and the need for suitable printing materials hinders its fast growth. Binder mixtures significantly influence the mechanical properties of printed ceramic bodies by VP, considering their rheological properties, curing performances and green body [...] Read more.
Additive ceramics manufacturing with vat-photopolymerisation (VP) is a developing field, and the need for suitable printing materials hinders its fast growth. Binder mixtures significantly influence the mechanical properties of printed ceramic bodies by VP, considering their rheological properties, curing performances and green body characteristics. Improving mechanical characteristics and reducing cracks during printing and post-processes is mainly related to binder formulations. The study aims to develop a binder formulation to provide the printed ceramic specimens with additional green strength. The impact on mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, Young’s and strain at breakpoint), viscosity and cure performance of Urethane Acrylate (UA) and thermoplastic Polyether Acrylate (PEA) oligomers to monofunctional N-Vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), 1,6-Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) and Tri-functional Photocentric 34 (PC34) monomers were investigated under varying concentrations. The best mechanical characteristic was showcased when the PC34 was replaced with 20–30 wt.% of UA in the organic medium. The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and sintering test outcomes revealed that increasing the content of NVP in the organic medium (above 15 wt.%) leads to uncontrolled thermal degradation during debinding and defects on ceramic parts after sintering. The negative effect of UA on the viscosity of ceramic-loaded mixtures was controlled by eliminating the PC34 compound with NVP and HDDA, and optimum mechanical properties were achieved at 15 wt.% of NVP and 65 wt.% of HDDA. PEA is added to provide additional flexibility to the ceramic parts. It was found that strain and other mechanical parameters peaked at 15 wt.% of PEA. The study formulated the most suitable binder formulation on the green body strength of printing silica ceramics as 50 wt.% HDDA, 20 wt.% Urethane Acrylate, 15 wt.% NVP and 15 wt.% PEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D/4D Printing for Polymer Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop