Special Issue "High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions"

A special issue of Plasma (ISSN 2571-6182).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yakov Krasik

Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Interests: non-stationary plasma; high-power ion/electron beams; electrical explosion of wires and wires array; strong shock waves; high-power microwaves

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last decade, there have been many advances and achievements in the generation of High-Power Microwaves (HPM) in relativistic magnetrons, backward oscillators, magnetically insulated transmission line oscillators, non-linear transmission lines and microwave compressors. The efficiency of operation of most of these devices is governed by high-current electron beams generated by explosive emission plasma cathodes and by plasma formation and evolution in slow wave structures. In addition, such high-power microwave beams open up new avenues in the field of HPM interactions with different mediums.

For this Special Issue of Plasma, researchers active in all aspects of the field of high power microwaves and plasma interactions are invited to submit their latest results. Papers covering fundamental studies, as well as papers discussing applications, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Yakov Krasik
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plasma is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • High power microwaves
  • Plasma
  • Electron beams
  • Plasma cathodes

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Radio Frequency Oscillations in Gyrotropic Nonlinear Transmission Lines
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 258-271; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020018
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
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Abstract
The paper considers the quasi-monochromatic radio frequency oscillations that are observable in transmission lines of doubly connected cross-sections, partially filled with a magnetized ferrite. The frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations appearing under the impact of short carrier-free electric pulses are determined by [...] Read more.
The paper considers the quasi-monochromatic radio frequency oscillations that are observable in transmission lines of doubly connected cross-sections, partially filled with a magnetized ferrite. The frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations appearing under the impact of short carrier-free electric pulses are determined by dispersive and non-linear properties of the line’s structure. The dispersion characteristics are governed by the geometry and size of the line and the spatial arrangement in the line of the ferromagnetic material with its intrinsic dispersion. The dependences shown by the oscillation parameters in real physical experiments are reproduced and analyzed via numerical simulation within models which account separately for different physical properties of the material and the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
Open AccessArticle
Low-Energy State Electron Beam in a Uniform Channel
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 222-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020016
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 27 May 2019
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Abstract
In our earlier work, we showed that a low-energy state of an electron beam exists in a nonuniform channel between two virtual cathodes in a magnetron with diffraction output, which consists of three uniform sections with increasing radius. A uniform axial magnetic field [...] Read more.
In our earlier work, we showed that a low-energy state of an electron beam exists in a nonuniform channel between two virtual cathodes in a magnetron with diffraction output, which consists of three uniform sections with increasing radius. A uniform axial magnetic field fills the interaction space. This led to magnetron operation with >90% efficiency when combined with a magnetic mirror field at the output end. In this present paper, we show that a low-energy state of an electron beam can be realized in a uniform channel in which an increasing magnetic field is used in order to create a magnetic mirror at the output end. We consider two cases, one where the injected beam current slightly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current and the other where the injected beam current greatly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current. On the time scale of relevance to planned experiments (∼30 ns), when the injected current slightly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current a stationary virtual cathode forms and when the injected current greatly exceeds the space-charge-limiting current the virtual cathode oscillates back and forth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of an S-Band MILO with Adjustable Beam Dump
Plasma 2019, 2(2), 138-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2020011
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 3 May 2019
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Abstract
This paper details the design, simulation, and optimization of a low-impedance high repetition rate magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) driven by a compact Marx generator. The project goals require the MILO to generate an radio frequency (RF) pulse within the S-band frequency [...] Read more.
This paper details the design, simulation, and optimization of a low-impedance high repetition rate magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) driven by a compact Marx generator. The project goals require the MILO to generate an radio frequency (RF) pulse within the S-band frequency range with a peak output power greater than 1 GW with greater than 10% efficiency. Its design is based on a set of base equation which provide critical component dimensions applied to a three-dimensional model constructed within CST studio suite used in a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Additional to the geometric model, simulation of the MILO with non-ideal material properties and a lumped element modeling of the Marx generator were performed. The results of these simulations then informed changes to the model as to the optimizing performance of the device. Within the framework of the model, the final MILO design achieves the design goals with an approximate RF peak power of 4.5 GW at 2.5 GHz operating in the TM 01 mode when an input driving pulse with a peak voltage of 600 kV while providing 58 kA is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Generators of Atmospheric Pressure Diffuse Discharge Plasma and Their Use for Surface Modification
Plasma 2019, 2(1), 27-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2010004
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
Studies of the properties of runaway electron preionized diffuse discharges (REP DDs) and their possible use have been carried out for more than 15 years. Three experimental setups generating a low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma and differing in the geometry of a discharge gap were [...] Read more.
Studies of the properties of runaway electron preionized diffuse discharges (REP DDs) and their possible use have been carried out for more than 15 years. Three experimental setups generating a low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma and differing in the geometry of a discharge gap were developed. They allow the treatment of surfaces of different materials with an area of several tens of square centimeters. A diffuse discharge plasma was formed in the pulse–periodic mode by applying negative voltage pulses with an amplitude of several tens of kilovolts and a duration of 4 ns to a discharge gap with sharply non-uniform electric field strength distribution. This paper presents experimental results of the study of the surface layer microstructure of copper and steel specimens of different sizes after treatment with the REP DD plasma in nitrogen flow mode and nitrogen circulation mode in the discharge chamber. It was shown that after 105 discharge pulses, the carbon concentration decreases and a disoriented surface layer with a depth of up to 200 nm is formed. Moreover, the results of X-ray phase analysis did not reveal changes in the phase composition of the surface of copper specimens. However, as a result of surface treatment with the REP DD plasma, the copper lattice becomes larger and the microstress increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Radial Kick in High-Efficiency Output Structures
Plasma 2019, 2(1), 15-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2010003
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
We have developed an analytical approach that predicts radial oscillation near the aperture of a pillbox cavity. In addition, it provides natural criteria for the design of a tapered guiding magnetic field in the output section of a relativistic klystron amplifier, as well [...] Read more.
We have developed an analytical approach that predicts radial oscillation near the aperture of a pillbox cavity. In addition, it provides natural criteria for the design of a tapered guiding magnetic field in the output section of a relativistic klystron amplifier, as well as that of a travelling wave tube, in a method that is self-consistent with the dynamics of the electrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Gyroton with the Corrugated Resonator
Plasma 2019, 2(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2010001
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
A new type of high-power electronic device—a gyroton with a corrugated resonator—is described and investigated. Spatial bunching of the electron beam does not occur in this device, however, highly efficient electron beam power conversion into the rotating electromagnetic field power is possible. The [...] Read more.
A new type of high-power electronic device—a gyroton with a corrugated resonator—is described and investigated. Spatial bunching of the electron beam does not occur in this device, however, highly efficient electron beam power conversion into the rotating electromagnetic field power is possible. The rectilinear electron beam deviates from the axis by the slow TM11 wave, then it gives up longitudinal energy to the same wave with more than 78% efficiency, and an output power up to 30 MW. The developed mathematical model of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with an irregular circular waveguide and resonator fields presented in this article can be used to calculate and optimize the processes occurring in various microwave electronic devices, such as gyrotrons, gyrotons, TWT, Gyro-TWT, and BWT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Experiments Designed to Study the Non-Linear Transition of High-Power Microwaves through Plasmas and Gases
Plasma 2019, 2(1), 51-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma2010006
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
The interaction of powerful sub-picosecond timescale lasers with neutral gas and plasmas has stimulated enormous interest because of the potential to accelerate particles to extremely large energies by the intense wakefields formed and without being limited by high accelerating gradients as in conventional [...] Read more.
The interaction of powerful sub-picosecond timescale lasers with neutral gas and plasmas has stimulated enormous interest because of the potential to accelerate particles to extremely large energies by the intense wakefields formed and without being limited by high accelerating gradients as in conventional accelerator cells. The interaction of extremely high-power electromagnetic waves with plasmas is though, of general interest and also to plasma heating and wake-field formation. The study of this subject has become more accessible with the availability of sub-nanosecond timescale GigaWatt (GW) power scale microwave sources. The interaction of such high-power microwaves (HPM) with under-dense plasmas is a scale down of the picosecond laser—dense plasma interaction situation. We present a review of a unique experiment in which such interactions are being studied, some of our results so far including results of our numerical modeling. Such experiments have not been performed before, self-channeling of HPM through gas and plasma and extremely fast plasma electron heating to keV energies have already been observed, wakefields resulting from the transition of HPM through plasma are next and more is expected to be revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Microwave and Plasma Interactions)
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