Special Issue "Philosophies on Analogy"

A special issue of Philosophies (ISSN 2409-9287).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska
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Guest Editor
Department of Logic and Methodology of Science, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szmarzewskiego 89C, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Interests: methodology of humanities; analytic philosophy; philosophy of dialogue; contemporary Latin-American philosophy; theory of analogy and its applications
Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Campos Benítez
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, Av. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza No. 229 Centro Histórico, C.P 72000. Puebla, Pue. Mexico
Interests: medieval logic and philosophy; New Spanish logic and philosophy; possible world semantics; relations between philosophy and logic; applications of logic; analogy
Dr. Piotr Leśniewski
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Logic and Methodology of Science, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szmarzewskiego 89C, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Interests: logic of questions and its applications; methodology of humanities; analytic philosophy; philosophy of dialogue; theory of reconciliation and transitive justice; theory of analogy and its applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite contributions to the Special Issue of Philosophies on Analogy as a means for documenting works presented at the Second World Congress on Analogy hosted by the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 24–26 May 2017. We also invite contributions which were not presented at the congress, but which are thematically and methodologically consistent with its program and spirit.

Thus, this Special Issue follows the intention of the congress to promote interdisciplinary research, philosophical reflection, and discourse across multiple methodological perspectives about analogy. The subject of analogy appears in many contexts and under many disguises attracting attention of those who deal with it in one way or another: philosophers, logicians, mathematicians, biologists, artists, computer scientists, linguists, psychologists, etc. There are many definitions and conceptions of analogy, but it is always considered as a universal tool that enables us to discover, explore, compare, analyze, understand and illustrate similarities and differences. Formally speaking, analogy can be defined as a relation between relations; it is connected with proportions and remains pervasive in science, art and religion. If we agree that inter-cultural, inter-ideological and inter-religious dialogue is a crucial issue, the humanistic approach to analogy seems to be of the greatest importance.

We invite papers addressing, among others, the following issues:

  • Notions of analogy through history
  • Methodological studies on analogies in formal sciences: logic, mathematics, statistics, game theory, decision theory, computer science, information theory, system theory
  • Logical theories of analogy: history and philosophical backgrounds
  • Philosophical concepts of analogy and their applications
  • Analogy-making processes in sciences
  • Homologies, analogies and the rise of evo-devo—studies on philosophical foundations of biological sciences
  • Analogy and philosophical foundations of the humanities—studies on the analectic method and analogical hermeneutics
  • Philosophy, science and art—multifarious links: analogies

The deadline for submissions is 30 November 2018, but accepted contributions will be published as soon as their editorial process is finalized.  

Dr. Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska
Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Campos Benítez
Dr. Piotr Leśniewski

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Philosophies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • analogy
  • analogical reasoning
  • analogical models
  • analectic method
  • analogical hermeneutics
  • homology
  • analogia entis
  • analogia legis
  • analogia iuris
  • analogy-making
  • arguments from analogy

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Analogy in Terms of Identity, Equivalence, Similarity, and Their Cryptomorphs
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020032 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Analogy belongs to the class of concepts notorious for a variety of definitions generating continuing disputes about their preferred understanding. Analogy is typically defined by or at least associated with similarity, but as long as similarity remains undefined this association does not eliminate [...] Read more.
Analogy belongs to the class of concepts notorious for a variety of definitions generating continuing disputes about their preferred understanding. Analogy is typically defined by or at least associated with similarity, but as long as similarity remains undefined this association does not eliminate ambiguity. In this paper, analogy is considered synonymous with a slightly generalized mathematical concept of similarity which under the name of tolerance relation has been the subject of extensive studies over several decades. In this approach, analogy can be mathematically formalized in terms of the sequence of binary relations of increased generality, from the identity, equivalence, tolerance, to weak tolerance relations. Each of these relations has cryptomorphic presentations relevant to the study of analogy. The formalism requires only two assumptions which are satisfied in all of the earlier attempts to formulate adequate definitions which met expectations of the intuitive use of the word analogy in general contexts. The mathematical formalism presented here permits theoretical analysis of analogy in the contrasting comparison with abstraction, showing its higher level of complexity, providing a precise methodology for its study and informing philosophical reflection. Also, arguments are presented for the legitimate expectation that better understanding of analogy can help mathematics in establishing a unified and universal concept of a structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Open AccessArticle
Analogy and Communication
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020031 - 05 Jun 2019
Abstract
Analogy makes possible the dialogue between people. This dialogue, at the intercultural level and from distinct ontological comprehensions of life, cannot be achieved from a univocal pretension of meaning. Analogy permits, especially at the rhetoric level of Political Philosophy, an adequate interpretation of [...] Read more.
Analogy makes possible the dialogue between people. This dialogue, at the intercultural level and from distinct ontological comprehensions of life, cannot be achieved from a univocal pretension of meaning. Analogy permits, especially at the rhetoric level of Political Philosophy, an adequate interpretation of such complex concepts as people, state or rights. A semantics of these concepts by similarity allows us to advance in the process towards a better interpretation of the other interlocutor’s expression though never reaching identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
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Open AccessArticle
Logical Problems in Analysis of Analogy
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020029 - 03 Jun 2019
Abstract
The paper discusses some logical problems concerning analogy. The traditional understanding of analogy as proportion (proportion) is inadequate, at least if proportionality is taken in mathematical sense. This situation is clear if we considered various special cases of analogy for instance analogia legis [...] Read more.
The paper discusses some logical problems concerning analogy. The traditional understanding of analogy as proportion (proportion) is inadequate, at least if proportionality is taken in mathematical sense. This situation is clear if we considered various special cases of analogy for instance analogia legis and analogia juris. Since analogy assumes a similarity of analogata (items being or investigated) as analogical, a general analysis of analogical relation must begin with the concept of similarity. It can be defined as possessing a common property. This idea is formalized by devices borrowed from logic and set theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Open AccessArticle
Use of Analogy in the Development of Intercultural Competence
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020025 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Analogy is defined in many different ways. In this paper it is understood as a process in which the familiar structure of a direct experience in one situation is used to make conclusions regarding an expected experience within another structure. This process is [...] Read more.
Analogy is defined in many different ways. In this paper it is understood as a process in which the familiar structure of a direct experience in one situation is used to make conclusions regarding an expected experience within another structure. This process is based on the perceived similarity of the structures, not on rational, theoretical analysis of the relations between their components and the mechanisms of their interactions. The use of analogy relies on the engagement of intuitive recognition of the structural similarity between different instances of experience. The engagement of intuition does not preclude rational study and the development of strategies for using analogy, as part of this work focuses on rational learning about our own experience. Analogy plays two very different roles in this paper; as the main subject of this study, which focuses on the development of intercultural competence, and as a methodological instrument for carrying out and sharing the results of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Open AccessArticle
Art in the Face of Evil: Analogies between the Conceptions of Two French Resistance Fighters
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020018 - 22 Apr 2019
Abstract
I present two conceptions of the human being and art: that of Renaud—the main fictional character of a short novel written by Vercors—and that of Albert Camus. Although these French resistance fighters experienced the same war, the same terrible events surprisingly lead them [...] Read more.
I present two conceptions of the human being and art: that of Renaud—the main fictional character of a short novel written by Vercors—and that of Albert Camus. Although these French resistance fighters experienced the same war, the same terrible events surprisingly lead them to opposite extremes: the first one to despair and the rejection of art perceived as an unbearable lie, the second one to hope and to artistic commitment. Analogical reasoning allows us to show both the similarities and the distinctions between these two men or, more precisely, between what they tell us about human beings and art. Thanks to this, it is easier to understand the essential role the artist plays and his duty towards humankind. Moreover, in the work of Albert Camus, we will see that revolt is—and must be—connected to love. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Open AccessArticle
Logical Analogies: Interpretations, Oppositions, and Probabilism
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020013 - 02 Apr 2019
Abstract
I present two logical systems to show the “analogy of proportionality” common to several interpretations: modality (necessity and possibility), quantification, truth-functional relations, moral attitudes (deontic logic), states of knowledge (epistemic logic), and states of belief (doxastic logic). To display the two underlying analogical [...] Read more.
I present two logical systems to show the “analogy of proportionality” common to several interpretations: modality (necessity and possibility), quantification, truth-functional relations, moral attitudes (deontic logic), states of knowledge (epistemic logic), and states of belief (doxastic logic). To display the two underlying analogical relations, I call upon the originally Scholastic convention, recently put to use again, of using squares, hexagons, and octagons “of opposition”. A combined epistemic–deontic logic happens to be found in the traditional “probabilist” theory of the “good conscience”, and I shall then briefly explain how this is so. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
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Open AccessArticle
Analogy and Visual Content: The Logica memorativa of Thomas Murner
Philosophies 2019, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4010002 - 27 Dec 2018
Abstract
In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of [...] Read more.
In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of the teaching of logic at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The first impression is visual, because the cards do not contain words that illustrate their content. Murner’s exposition rests on analogies between logic themes that are explained and the visual images presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
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Open AccessArticle
The Problem of Context for Similarity: An Insight from Analogical Cognition
Philosophies 2018, 3(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies3040039 - 21 Nov 2018
Abstract
Similarity is central for the definition of concepts in several theories in cognitive psychology. However, similarity encounters several problems which were emphasized by Goodman in 1972. At the end of his article, Goodman banishes similarity from any serious philosophical or scientific investigations. If [...] Read more.
Similarity is central for the definition of concepts in several theories in cognitive psychology. However, similarity encounters several problems which were emphasized by Goodman in 1972. At the end of his article, Goodman banishes similarity from any serious philosophical or scientific investigations. If Goodman is right, theories of concepts based on similarity encounter a huge problem and should be revised entirely. In this paper, we would like to analyze the notion of similarity with some insight from psychological works on analogical cognition. Analogical cognition compares two situations or objects in order to find similarities between them. In doing so, the analogical process sorts the different features of the two situations or objects and determines the most important ones. The analogical process is also highly sensitive to context. Context-sensitivity is desirable at some level, but it is also problematic as it leads to a computational explosion. To answer this problem, we would like to consider salience as a possible heuristic in the analogical process. We will distinguish three forms of salience: Sensory, categorical, and operational. By taking salience into account, we can introduce a shortcut into the computation of similarity and circumvent computational explosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
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Open AccessPerspective
An Evo-Devo Perspective on Analogy in Biology
Philosophies 2019, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4010005 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To explain the amazing morphological and biomechanical analogy between two distantly related vertebrates as are a dolphin and a shark, an explanation exclusively framed in terms of adaptation (i.e., in terms of the Darwinian survival of the fittest) is far from satisfactory. The [...] Read more.
To explain the amazing morphological and biomechanical analogy between two distantly related vertebrates as are a dolphin and a shark, an explanation exclusively framed in terms of adaptation (i.e., in terms of the Darwinian survival of the fittest) is far from satisfactory. The same is true, of course, of any other comparison between structurally similar, but phylogenetically unrelated organisms. A purely evolutionary argument does not throw any light on how the developmental processes of their ancestors could eventually evolve in such a way as to eventually produce these peculiar phenotypes (the arrival of the fittest). How does Nature play with animal and plant form? To address the issue of the evolution of possible forms, we cannot ignore that these are products of development. This invites adopting the integrated perspective, currently known as evolutionary developmental biology, or evo-devo. Paths through the maze of living forms are not satisfactorily explained in terms of pure geometrical transformations or of the adaptive value of the phenotypes eventually produced. The emergence of form is largely dependent on the intrinsic evolvability of the developmental processes that translate the genotype into phenotypes. As a consequence, development makes analogous structures more likely to evolve than a pure adaptationist argument would ever suggest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
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