Special Issue "Philosophies on Analogy"

A special issue of Philosophies (ISSN 2409-9287).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska

Department of Logic and Methodology of Science, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szmarzewskiego 89C, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: methodology of humanities; analytic philosophy; philosophy of dialogue; contemporary Latin-American philosophy; theory of analogy and its applications
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Campos Benítez

Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, Av. Juan de Palafox y Mendoza No. 229 Centro Histórico, C.P 72000. Puebla, Pue. Mexico
Website | E-Mail
Interests: medieval logic and philosophy; New Spanish logic and philosophy; possible world semantics; relations between philosophy and logic; applications of logic; analogy
Guest Editor
Dr. Piotr Leśniewski

Department of Logic and Methodology of Science, Institute of Philosophy, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Szmarzewskiego 89C, 60-568 Poznań, Poland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: logic of questions and its applications; methodology of humanities; analytic philosophy; philosophy of dialogue; theory of reconciliation and transitive justice; theory of analogy and its applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite contributions to the Special Issue of Philosophies on Analogy as a means for documenting works presented at the Second World Congress on Analogy hosted by the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 24–26 May 2017. We also invite contributions which were not presented at the congress, but which are thematically and methodologically consistent with its program and spirit.

Thus, this Special Issue follows the intention of the congress to promote interdisciplinary research, philosophical reflection, and discourse across multiple methodological perspectives about analogy. The subject of analogy appears in many contexts and under many disguises attracting attention of those who deal with it in one way or another: philosophers, logicians, mathematicians, biologists, artists, computer scientists, linguists, psychologists, etc. There are many definitions and conceptions of analogy, but it is always considered as a universal tool that enables us to discover, explore, compare, analyze, understand and illustrate similarities and differences. Formally speaking, analogy can be defined as a relation between relations; it is connected with proportions and remains pervasive in science, art and religion. If we agree that inter-cultural, inter-ideological and inter-religious dialogue is a crucial issue, the humanistic approach to analogy seems to be of the greatest importance.

We invite papers addressing, among others, the following issues:

  • Notions of analogy through history
  • Methodological studies on analogies in formal sciences: logic, mathematics, statistics, game theory, decision theory, computer science, information theory, system theory
  • Logical theories of analogy: history and philosophical backgrounds
  • Philosophical concepts of analogy and their applications
  • Analogy-making processes in sciences
  • Homologies, analogies and the rise of evo-devo—studies on philosophical foundations of biological sciences
  • Analogy and philosophical foundations of the humanities—studies on the analectic method and analogical hermeneutics
  • Philosophy, science and art—multifarious links: analogies

The deadline for submissions is 30 November 2018, but accepted contributions will be published as soon as their editorial process is finalized.  

Dr. Katarzyna Gan-Krzywoszyńska
Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Campos Benítez
Dr. Piotr Leśniewski

Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Philosophies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • analogy
  • analogical reasoning
  • analogical models
  • analectic method
  • analogical hermeneutics
  • homology
  • analogia entis
  • analogia legis
  • analogia iuris
  • analogy-making
  • arguments from analogy

Published Papers (5 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-5
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle Art in the Face of Evil: Analogies between the Conceptions of Two French Resistance Fighters
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020018 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
I present two conceptions of the human being and art: that of Renaud—the main fictional character of a short novel written by Vercors—and that of Albert Camus. Although these French resistance fighters experienced the same war, the same terrible events surprisingly lead them [...] Read more.
I present two conceptions of the human being and art: that of Renaud—the main fictional character of a short novel written by Vercors—and that of Albert Camus. Although these French resistance fighters experienced the same war, the same terrible events surprisingly lead them to opposite extremes: the first one to despair and the rejection of art perceived as an unbearable lie, the second one to hope and to artistic commitment. Analogical reasoning allows us to show both the similarities and the distinctions between these two men or, more precisely, between what they tell us about human beings and art. Thanks to this, it is easier to understand the essential role the artist plays and his duty towards humankind. Moreover, in the work of Albert Camus, we will see that revolt is—and must be—connected to love. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Open AccessArticle Logical Analogies: Interpretations, Oppositions, and Probabilism
Philosophies 2019, 4(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020013
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
PDF Full-text (5653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
I present two logical systems to show the “analogy of proportionality” common to several interpretations: modality (necessity and possibility), quantification, truth-functional relations, moral attitudes (deontic logic), states of knowledge (epistemic logic), and states of belief (doxastic logic). To display the two underlying analogical [...] Read more.
I present two logical systems to show the “analogy of proportionality” common to several interpretations: modality (necessity and possibility), quantification, truth-functional relations, moral attitudes (deontic logic), states of knowledge (epistemic logic), and states of belief (doxastic logic). To display the two underlying analogical relations, I call upon the originally Scholastic convention, recently put to use again, of using squares, hexagons, and octagons “of opposition”. A combined epistemic–deontic logic happens to be found in the traditional “probabilist” theory of the “good conscience”, and I shall then briefly explain how this is so. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analogy and Visual Content: The Logica memorativa of Thomas Murner
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
PDF Full-text (3631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of [...] Read more.
In this article, after some thoughts on medieval logic and teaching, we present Thomas Murner’s text, Logica memorativa, showing some of his mnemonic strategies for the student to learn logic quickly. Murner offers a type of “flash cards” that illustrate much of the teaching of logic at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The first impression is visual, because the cards do not contain words that illustrate their content. Murner’s exposition rests on analogies between logic themes that are explained and the visual images presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Problem of Context for Similarity: An Insight from Analogical Cognition
Philosophies 2018, 3(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies3040039
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF Full-text (912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Similarity is central for the definition of concepts in several theories in cognitive psychology. However, similarity encounters several problems which were emphasized by Goodman in 1972. At the end of his article, Goodman banishes similarity from any serious philosophical or scientific investigations. If [...] Read more.
Similarity is central for the definition of concepts in several theories in cognitive psychology. However, similarity encounters several problems which were emphasized by Goodman in 1972. At the end of his article, Goodman banishes similarity from any serious philosophical or scientific investigations. If Goodman is right, theories of concepts based on similarity encounter a huge problem and should be revised entirely. In this paper, we would like to analyze the notion of similarity with some insight from psychological works on analogical cognition. Analogical cognition compares two situations or objects in order to find similarities between them. In doing so, the analogical process sorts the different features of the two situations or objects and determines the most important ones. The analogical process is also highly sensitive to context. Context-sensitivity is desirable at some level, but it is also problematic as it leads to a computational explosion. To answer this problem, we would like to consider salience as a possible heuristic in the analogical process. We will distinguish three forms of salience: Sensory, categorical, and operational. By taking salience into account, we can introduce a shortcut into the computation of similarity and circumvent computational explosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessPerspective An Evo-Devo Perspective on Analogy in Biology
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explain the amazing morphological and biomechanical analogy between two distantly related vertebrates as are a dolphin and a shark, an explanation exclusively framed in terms of adaptation (i.e., in terms of the Darwinian survival of the fittest) is far from satisfactory. The [...] Read more.
To explain the amazing morphological and biomechanical analogy between two distantly related vertebrates as are a dolphin and a shark, an explanation exclusively framed in terms of adaptation (i.e., in terms of the Darwinian survival of the fittest) is far from satisfactory. The same is true, of course, of any other comparison between structurally similar, but phylogenetically unrelated organisms. A purely evolutionary argument does not throw any light on how the developmental processes of their ancestors could eventually evolve in such a way as to eventually produce these peculiar phenotypes (the arrival of the fittest). How does Nature play with animal and plant form? To address the issue of the evolution of possible forms, we cannot ignore that these are products of development. This invites adopting the integrated perspective, currently known as evolutionary developmental biology, or evo-devo. Paths through the maze of living forms are not satisfactorily explained in terms of pure geometrical transformations or of the adaptive value of the phenotypes eventually produced. The emergence of form is largely dependent on the intrinsic evolvability of the developmental processes that translate the genotype into phenotypes. As a consequence, development makes analogous structures more likely to evolve than a pure adaptationist argument would ever suggest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Philosophies on Analogy)
Philosophies EISSN 2409-9287 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top