The paper discusses some logical problems concerning analogy. The traditional understanding of analogy as proportion
(proportion) is inadequate, at least if proportionality is taken in mathematical sense. This situation is clear if we considered various special cases of analogy for instance analogia legis
and analogia juris.
Since analogy assumes a similarity of analogata (items being or investigated) as analogical, a general analysis of analogical relation must begin with the concept of similarity. It can be defined as possessing a common property. This idea is formalized by devices borrowed from logic and set theory.
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