Conference Reports

Minimizing Medication Errors from Electronic Prescription Transmission—Digitizing Compounded Drug Preparations

Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 149;

Lack of standardization related to compounded drug preparations, especially in the transition of care situations, threatens patient safety by facilitating medication error. This paper outlines progress to-date from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Expert Panel on the Exchange of Compounded Drug Preparation Information in Health IT Systems. The work plan developed for the group is focused on proposing a set of encoding rules that would govern how compounded nonsterile drug preparations (CNSPs) are digitized and exchanged, including patient electronic health records (EHR), pharmacy systems, e-prescribing (eRx), and other Health IT (HIT) systems to ensure a seamless compounding process tailored to the needs of an individual patient. Included in this work are identifying authorized compounding monographs, surveying provider and end-user groups for information about data specificity during e-prescribing, and generating guidelines for the development of a compatible data model for clinical formulation identifiers (CF-IDs). This paper will also discuss how evolving nomenclature standards for CNSPs within HIT systems are part of a quality assurance system for comprehensive medication management (CMM) in children, thereby minimizing medication errors across the continuum of care. Finally, a network approach for the design of medication management systems for children and their families/caregivers is proposed.
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What Is a Formulary, Anyway? Part 2

Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 72;

This paper is a continuation of the first paper on drug formularies. It details the various types of formularies, and speculates on the future of formularies as an instrument for improving rational drug therapy.
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Lecture 2—What Is a Formulary, Anyway? (Or the Cliff Notes Version of Drug Stewardship and Expense Control)

Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 69;

A formulary is the product of an evaluative process, the formulary system, conducted by an expert panel that both sanctions and guides the selection, prescription, administration, and monitoring of pharmaceuticals and related items for a given environment. An expert panel, often called the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (P&T), is a group of pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and administrators assembled for the purpose of providing guidance and validation for pharmaceutical utilization in a given organization. Expert panels became prominent because of qualitative and quantitative changes in drug production and marketing strategies employed by industry, the expansion of public health sector medicine, and organized, macro-level drug control systems. It could be argued that, as a clinical instrument, the formulary is predicated on the role pharmacy is perceived to play in actual direct patient care. In this lecture, the concept and defining characteristics of a formulary (the perspective of an expert panel, differences in the environment of application, and interprofessional relationships), the modifiers used to describe a formulary, which modifiers enhance or distract from its meaning, and the outlook for comprehensive and objective evaluation through the formulary mechanism are discussed.
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Lecture 3—Measuring Pharmacy’s Work in the 21st Century

Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 63;

The importance of developing a thoroughly shared understanding of mission, vision, and values is highlighted in reference to the creation of meaningful and sustainable key performance indicators (KPIs). A review of clinical practice KPIs (cpKPIs) and operational KPIs (opKPIs) is provided using work load measurement activities from Canada, its province of Alberta, and the United Kingdom. In order for Singaporean pharmacy clinicians and leaders to embrace a unified KPI system, the natural tendency to measure what is easy and available, instead of what matters to patients, is difficult but must be overcome.
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Lecture 1—Justification of the Value of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Clinical Indicators Measurements—Introductory Remarks from a Traveler on a 40-Year Wayfaring Journey with Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care

Pharmacy 2018, 6(3), 56;

Without question, health care delivery, and clinical pharmacy’s purpose in it, is changing rapidly all over the world. Pharmacy’s place in the new health care environment is ensured only to the extent that the purpose of pharmaceutical care is understood and transmitted to the global structures of these developing organizational patterns and paradigm shifts. While the current trend toward commodification of illness and treatment seems to be driving efforts to consolidate the economic factors of pharmaceutical distribution, a new type of practice—patient-driven health care—has continued to shape the interactions of pharmacists and patients all over the world. A thorough understanding of the above factors involved in pharmacy’s history, present, and future are necessary for clinical practice preparation, as well as for value justification. How clinical pharmacy will succeed in this kind of social and economic milieu is precisely why this series of lectures and roundtables will help us embrace many of the vexing issues that clinical pharmacy administrators and practitioners face in daily practice.
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Briefing Note: Proceedings of the Singapore National Clinical Pharmacy Colloquium—Health Manpower Development Planning

Pharmacy 2018, 6(2), 54;

The nation of Singapore highly values its health service as well as the component of healthcare delivery that includes clinical pharmacy and administration. The Ministry of Health (MOH) engaged the services of Dr. Richard Parrish to better understand the relationship between the Singaporean citizenry and its clinical pharmacists. Through a series of five lectures, structured from the national to local unit level, four roundtables, two hands-on sessions, and three workshops, clinical pharmacists and administrative leadership participated in “open-mic” style lectures, discussed the issues facing Singapore pharmacy in its current provision of healthcare services, and deliberated on the future resources required to meet projected healthcare needs. From three distinct perspectives, these discussions were very frank, transparent, and passionate about what practitioners and administrators thought Singaporean health leadership needed to address in terms of (1) what programs and practices to continue; (2) what ones to start; and (3) what ones to evaluate. Each of the areas below will be framed using these three perspectives in order to clearly reflect the ideas and suggestions expressed in each of the 14 group sessions. These recommendations are forwarded to MOH pharmacy leadership for consideration and action. In addition, we met with MOH leaders regarding non-medical prescribing (NMP), and discussed strategies and tactics that seemed successful as well as unsuccessful in other jurisdictions when adopting expanded scope models for clinical pharmacists and other qualified healthcare providers that include prescribing of medications.
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