Special Issue "Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Maria Vallet Regí: 20 Years of Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2021) | Viewed by 26022

Special Issue Editors

1. Unit of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
2. CIBER Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain
Interests: biomaterials; bioceramics; silica-based mesoporous materials; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; organic-inorganic hybrid materials; smart nanomaterials; drug delivery systems; anti-adhesive surfaces; antitumor therapy; bone-tissue regeneration; osteoporosis treatment; infection treatment; nanoantibiotics
Departamento de Química en Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre i + 12, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: silica-based mesoporous materials; bioceramics; functionalization; drug delivery; scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration; bone infection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Maria Vallet Regí: 20 Years of Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials” arises from the initiative of the Editorial team of Pharmaceutics to pay homage to Professor Maria Vallet-Regí for her remarkable scientific contribution to the field of silica-based mesoporous materials. She is recognized as a pioneer in introducing drugs into the pores of ordered mesoporous silica materials 20 years ago, which has motivated thousands of publications worldwide focused on mesoporous materials for drug delivery. We are delighted to have been chosen by the journal to organize this honorary issue, and we hope that we can count on the best experts in this research field, friends and scientists, to pay a deserved tribute to such a prominent scientific figure.

The interest in silica-based mesoporous materials is due to their unique structural, textural, and chemical surface properties, which make them suitable in a wide range of applications, from catalysis to biomedicine. This Special Issue will cover research articles, reviews, and communications related to fundamental aspects of mesoporous materials (synthesis, characterization, functionalization, etc.) and potential applications, highlighting biomedicine.

Dr. Montserrat Colilla
Dr. Isabel Izquierdo-Barba
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • silica-based mesoporous materials
  • periodic mesoporous organosilica
  • mesoporous silica nanoparticles
  • synthesis and characterization
  • surface functionalization
  • adsorption
  • sensing
  • bioceramics
  • nanomedicine
  • controlled release
  • targeting
  • stimuli-responsive drug delivery
  • multifunctionality

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor María Vallet Regí: 20 Years of Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010125 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 987
Abstract
This Special Issue entitled “Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor María Vallet-Regí: 20 Years of Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials” arises from the initiative of the editorial team of Pharmaceutics to pay homage to Professor Maria Vallet-Regí for her ground-breaking pioneering scientific contribution to the [...] Read more.
This Special Issue entitled “Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor María Vallet-Regí: 20 Years of Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials” arises from the initiative of the editorial team of Pharmaceutics to pay homage to Professor Maria Vallet-Regí for her ground-breaking pioneering scientific contribution to the field of silica-based mesoporous materials for biomedical applications [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
The Role of Transmission Electron Microscopy in the Early Development of Mesoporous Materials for Tissue Regeneration and Drug Delivery Applications
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(12), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122200 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1944
Abstract
For the last 20 years, silica-based mesoporous materials have provided a sound platform for the development of biomedical technology applied to tissue engineering and drug delivery. Their unique structural and textural characteristics, chiefly, the ordered distribution of homogeneous and tunable pores with high [...] Read more.
For the last 20 years, silica-based mesoporous materials have provided a sound platform for the development of biomedical technology applied to tissue engineering and drug delivery. Their unique structural and textural characteristics, chiefly, the ordered distribution of homogeneous and tunable pores with high surface areas and large pore volume, and their excellent biocompatibility provide an excellent starting point for bone tissue regeneration on the mesoporous surface, and also to load species of interest inside the pores. Adequate control of the synthesis conditions and functionalization of the mesoporous surface are critical factors in the design of new systems that are suitable for use in specific medical applications. Simultaneously, the use of appropriate characterization techniques in the several stages of design and manufacture of mesoporous particles allows us to ascertain the textural, structural and compositional modifications induced during the synthesis, functionalization and post-in vitro assays processes. In this scenario, the present paper shows, through several examples, the role of transmission electron microscopy and associated spectroscopic techniques in the search for useful information in the early design stages of mesoporous systems, with application in the fields of tissue regeneration and drug delivery systems. Full article
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Article
Incorporation of Zinc into Binary SiO2-CaO Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Enhances Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Activities
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(12), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122124 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
During the healing and repair of bone defects, uncontrolled inflammatory responses can compromise bone regeneration. Biomaterials with anti-inflammatory activity are favorable for bone tissue regeneration processes. In this work, multifunctional Zn-containing mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (Zn-MBGs) exhibiting favorable osteogenic and anti-inflammatory activities were [...] Read more.
During the healing and repair of bone defects, uncontrolled inflammatory responses can compromise bone regeneration. Biomaterials with anti-inflammatory activity are favorable for bone tissue regeneration processes. In this work, multifunctional Zn-containing mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (Zn-MBGs) exhibiting favorable osteogenic and anti-inflammatory activities were produced employing a sol-gel method. Zn-MBGs exhibited a mesoporous spherical shape and nanoscale particle size (100 ± 20 nm). They were degradable in cell culture medium, and could release Si, Ca, and Zn in a sustained manner. Zn-MBGs also exhibited a concentration-dependent cellular response. The extract of Zn-MBGs obtained by incubation at 0.1 mg/mL (in culture medium) for 24 h could enhance in vitro mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of osteogenesis-related genes, and the production of intracellular protein osteocalcin of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Moreover, the extract of Zn-MBGs at 0.1 mg/mL could significantly downregulate the expression of inflammatory genes and the production of inducible nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells, particularly under stimulation of inflammatory signals interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zn-MBGs also inhibited the pro-inflammatory M1 polarization of RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS and IFN-γ. In summary, we successfully synthesized Zn-MBGs with concentration-dependent osteogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Zn-MBGs show their great potential in immunomodulation strategies for bone regeneration, representing a multifunctional biomaterial that can be applied to regenerate bone defects under inflammatory conditions. Full article
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Article
Polyelectrolyte-Coated Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses via Layer-by-Layer Deposition for Sustained Co-Delivery of Therapeutic Ions and Drugs
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(11), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13111952 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
In the field of bone regeneration, considerable attention has been addressed towards the use of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), as multifunctional therapeutic platforms for advanced medical devices. In fact, their extremely high exposed surface area and pore volume allow to load and the [...] Read more.
In the field of bone regeneration, considerable attention has been addressed towards the use of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs), as multifunctional therapeutic platforms for advanced medical devices. In fact, their extremely high exposed surface area and pore volume allow to load and the release of several drugs, while their framework can be enriched with specific therapeutic ions allowing to boost the tissue regeneration. However, due to the open and easily accessible mesopore structure of MBG, the release of the incorporated therapeutic molecules shows an initial burst effect leading to unsuitable release kinetics. Hence, a still open challenge in the design of drug delivery systems based on MBGs is the control of their release behavior. In this work, Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyelectrolyte multi-layers was exploited as a powerful and versatile technique for coating the surface of Cu-substituted MBG nanoparticles with innovative multifunctional drug delivery systems for co-releasing of therapeutic copper ions (exerting pro-angiogenic and anti-bacterial effects) and an anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen). Two different routes were investigated: in the first strategy, chitosan and alginate were assembled by forming the multi-layered surface, and, successively, ibuprofen was loaded by incipient wetness impregnation, while in the second approach, alginate was replaced by ibuprofen, introduced as polyelectrolyte layer. Zeta-potential, TGA and FT-IR spectroscopy were measured after the addition of each polyelectrolyte layer, confirming the occurrence of the stepwise deposition. In addition, the in vitro bioactivity and the ability to modulate the release of the cargo were evaluated. The polyelectrolyte coated-MBGs were proved to retain the peculiar ability to induce hydroxyapatite formation after 7 days of soaking in Simulated Body Fluid. Both copper ions and ibuprofen were co-released over time, showing a sustained release profile up to 14 days and 24 h, respectively, with a significantly lower burst release compared to the bare MBG particles. Full article
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Article
Effects of Absorption Kinetics on the Catabolism of Melatonin Released from CAP-Coated Mesoporous Silica Drug Delivery Vehicles
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(9), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091436 - 09 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Melatonin (MLT) is a pineal hormone involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The efficacy of exogenous MLT for the treatment of circadian and sleep disorders is variable due to a strong liver metabolism effect. In this work, MLT is encapsulated in [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MLT) is a pineal hormone involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The efficacy of exogenous MLT for the treatment of circadian and sleep disorders is variable due to a strong liver metabolism effect. In this work, MLT is encapsulated in mesoporous silica (AMS-6) with a loading capacity of 28.8 wt%, and the mesopores are blocked using a coating of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) at 1:1 and 1:2 AMS-6/MLT:CAP ratios. The release kinetics of MLT from the formulations is studied in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The permeability of the MLT released from the formulations and its 6-hydroxylation are studied in an in vitro model of the intestinal tract (Caco-2 cells monolayer). The release of MLT from AMS-6/MLT:CAP 1:2 is significantly delayed in acidic environments up to 40 min, while remaining unaffected in neutral environments. The presence of CAP decreases the absorption of melatonin and increases its catabolism into 6-hydroxylation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2. The simple confinement of melatonin into AMS-6 pores slightly affects the permeability and significantly decreases melatonin 6-hydroxylation. Measurable amounts of silicon in the basolateral side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer might suggest the dissolution of AMS-6 during the experiment. Full article
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Article
Ultrasound-Responsive Smart Drug Delivery System of Lipid Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13091396 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
The immediate release of chemotherapeutics at the target site, along with no premature release in circulation is always challenging. The purpose of this study was to develop a stimuli responsive drug delivery system, composed of lipid supported mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) for triggered [...] Read more.
The immediate release of chemotherapeutics at the target site, along with no premature release in circulation is always challenging. The purpose of this study was to develop a stimuli responsive drug delivery system, composed of lipid supported mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) for triggered drug release at the target site and simultaneously avoiding the premature release. MSNPs with a higher drug loading capacity and very slow release were designed so as to enhance release by FDA approved US-irradiation. Doxorubicin, as a model drug, and perfluoropentane (PFP) as a US responsive material, were entrapped in the porous structure of MSNPs. Lipid coating enhanced the cellular uptake and in addition provided a gatekeeping effect at the pore opening to reduce premature release. The mechanical and thermal effects of US induced the conversion of liquid PFP to a gaseous form that was able to rupture the lipid layer, resulting in triggered drug release. The prolonged stability profile and non-toxic behavior made them suitable candidate for the delivery of anticancer drugs. This smart system, with the abilities of better cellular uptake and higher cytotoxic effects on US-irradiation, would be a good addition to the applied side of chemotherapeutic advanced drug delivery systems. Full article
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Article
Effective Actions of Ion Release from Mesoporous Bioactive Glass and Macrophage Mediators on the Differentiation of Osteoprogenitor and Endothelial Progenitor Cells
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(8), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081152 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Due to their specific mesoporous structure and large surface area, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) possess both drug-delivery ability and effective ionic release to promote bone regeneration by stimulating osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Macrophages secrete mediators that can affect both processes, depending on their phenotype. [...] Read more.
Due to their specific mesoporous structure and large surface area, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) possess both drug-delivery ability and effective ionic release to promote bone regeneration by stimulating osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Macrophages secrete mediators that can affect both processes, depending on their phenotype. In this work, the action of ion release from MBG-75S, with a molar composition of 75SiO2-20CaO-5P2O5, on osteogenesis and angiogenesis and the modulatory role of macrophages have been assessed in vitro with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in monoculture and in coculture with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Ca2+, phosphorous, and silicon ions released from MBG-75S were measured in the culture medium during both differentiation processes. Alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization were quantified as the key markers of osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of CD31, CD34, VEGFR2, eNOS, and vWF was evaluated to characterize the EPC differentiation into mature endothelial cells. Other cellular parameters analyzed included the cell size and complexity, intracellular calcium, and intracellular content of the reactive oxygen species. The results obtained indicate that the ions released by MBG-75S promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro, evidencing a macrophage inhibitory role in these processes and demonstrating the high potential of MBG-75S for the preparation of implants for bone regeneration. Full article
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Article
Lactose-Gated Mesoporous Silica Particles for Intestinal Controlled Delivery of Essential Oil Components: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(7), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13070982 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Mesoporous silica microparticles functionalized with lactose for the specific release of essential oil components (EOCs) in the small intestine are presented. In vitro and in vivo intestinal models were applied to validate the microparticles (M41-EOC-L), in which the presence of lactase acts as [...] Read more.
Mesoporous silica microparticles functionalized with lactose for the specific release of essential oil components (EOCs) in the small intestine are presented. In vitro and in vivo intestinal models were applied to validate the microparticles (M41-EOC-L), in which the presence of lactase acts as the triggering stimulus for the controlled release of EOCs. Among the different microdevices prepared (containing thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde), the one loaded with cinnamaldehyde showed the most significant Caco-2 cell viability reduction. On the other hand, interaction of the particles with enterocyte-like monolayers showed a reduction of EOCs permeability when protected into the designed microdevices. Then, a microdevice loaded with cinnamaldehyde was applied in the in vivo model of Wistar rat. The results showed a reduction in cinnamaldehyde plasma levels and an increase in its concentration in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The absence of payload release in the stomach, the progressive release throughout the intestine and the prolonged stay of the payload in the GIT-lumen increased the bioavailability of the encapsulated compound at the site of the desired action. These innovative results, based on the specific intestinal controlled delivery, suggest that the M41-payload-L could be a potential hybrid microdevice for the protection and administration of bioactive molecules in the small intestine and colon. Full article
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Article
pH-Responsive Release of Ruthenium Metallotherapeutics from Mesoporous Silica-Based Nanocarriers
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040460 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Ruthenium complexes are attracting interest in cancer treatment due to their potent cytotoxic activity. However, as their high toxicity may also affect healthy tissues, efficient and selective drug delivery systems to tumour tissues are needed. Our study focuses on the construction of such [...] Read more.
Ruthenium complexes are attracting interest in cancer treatment due to their potent cytotoxic activity. However, as their high toxicity may also affect healthy tissues, efficient and selective drug delivery systems to tumour tissues are needed. Our study focuses on the construction of such drug delivery systems for the delivery of cytotoxic Ru(II) complexes upon exposure to a weakly acidic environment of tumours. As nanocarriers, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are utilized, whose surface is functionalized with two types of ligands, (2-thienylmethyl)hydrazine hydrochloride (H1) and (5,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)hydrazine (H2), which were attached to MSN through a pH-responsive hydrazone linkage. Further coordination to ruthenium(II) center yielded two types of nanomaterials MSN-H1[Ru] and MSN-H2[Ru]. Spectrophotometric measurements of the drug release kinetics at different pH (5.0, 6.0 and 7.4) confirm the enhanced release of Ru(II) complexes at lower pH values, which is further supported by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) measurements. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity effect of the released metallotherapeutics is evaluated in vitro on metastatic B16F1 melanoma cells and enhanced cancer cell-killing efficacy is demonstrated upon exposure of the nanomaterials to weakly acidic conditions. The obtained results showcase the promising capabilities of the designed MSN nanocarriers for the pH-responsive delivery of metallotherapeutics and targeted treatment of cancer. Full article
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Review

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Review
Mesoporous Bioglasses Enriched with Bioactive Agents for Bone Repair, with a Special Highlight of María Vallet-Regí’s Contribution
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010202 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Throughout her impressive scientific career, Prof. María Vallet-Regí opened various research lines aimed at designing new bioceramics, including mesoporous bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering applications. These bioactive glasses can be considered a spin-off of silica mesoporous materials because they are designed with [...] Read more.
Throughout her impressive scientific career, Prof. María Vallet-Regí opened various research lines aimed at designing new bioceramics, including mesoporous bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering applications. These bioactive glasses can be considered a spin-off of silica mesoporous materials because they are designed with a similar technical approach. Mesoporous glasses in addition to SiO2 contain significant amounts of other oxides, particularly CaO and P2O5 and therefore, they exhibit quite different properties and clinical applications than mesoporous silica compounds. Both materials exhibit ordered mesoporous structures with a very narrow pore size distribution that are achieved by using surfactants during their synthesis. The characteristics of mesoporous glasses made them suitable to be enriched with various osteogenic agents, namely inorganic ions and biopeptides as well as mesenchymal cells. In the present review, we summarize the evolution of mesoporous bioactive glasses research for bone repair, with a special highlight on the impact of Prof. María Vallet-Regí´s contribution to the field. Full article
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Review
Silica-Based Stimuli-Responsive Systems for Antitumor Drug Delivery and Controlled Release
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14010110 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
The administration of cytotoxic drugs in classical chemotherapy is frequently limited by water solubility, low plasmatic stability, and a myriad of secondary effects associated with their diffusion to healthy tissue. In this sense, novel pharmaceutical forms able to deliver selectively these drugs to [...] Read more.
The administration of cytotoxic drugs in classical chemotherapy is frequently limited by water solubility, low plasmatic stability, and a myriad of secondary effects associated with their diffusion to healthy tissue. In this sense, novel pharmaceutical forms able to deliver selectively these drugs to the malign cells, and imposing a space-time precise control of their discharge, are needed. In the last two decades, silica nanoparticles have been proposed as safe vehicles for antitumor molecules due to their stability in physiological medium, high surface area and easy functionalization, and good biocompatibility. In this review, we focus on silica-based nanomedicines provided with specific mechanisms for intracellular drug release. According to silica nature (amorphous, mesostructured, and hybrids) nanocarriers responding to a variety of stimuli endogenously (e.g., pH, redox potential, and enzyme activity) or exogenously (e.g., magnetic field, light, temperature, and ultrasound) are proposed. Furthermore, the incorporation of targeting molecules (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) that interact with specific cell membrane receptors allows a selective delivery to cancer cells to be carried out. Eventually, we present some remarks on the most important formulations in the pipeline for clinical approval, and we discuss the most difficult tasks to tackle in the near future, in order to extend the use of these nanomedicines to real patients. Full article
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Review
Chronology of Global Success: 20 Years of Prof Vallet-Regí Solving Questions
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(12), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122179 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Twenty years ago, a group of bold scientists led by Prof Vallet-Regí suggested for the first time the use of mesoporous materials as potential drug delivery systems. Without knowing it; these pioneers unleashed the beast of creativity around the world because that original [...] Read more.
Twenty years ago, a group of bold scientists led by Prof Vallet-Regí suggested for the first time the use of mesoporous materials as potential drug delivery systems. Without knowing it; these pioneers unleashed the beast of creativity around the world because that original idea has been the inspiration of hundreds of scientific groups for the design of many versatile delivery systems based on mesoporous materials. Because the dream is not the destination, it is the journey, the present review aims to summarise the chain of events that catapulted a small and young research team from the grassroots of academia to the elite of the Biomedical Engineering field. Full article
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Review
Nanoantibiotics Based in Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: New Formulations for Bacterial Infection Treatment
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(12), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122033 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
This review focuses on the design of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for infection treatment. Written within a general context of contributions in the field, this manuscript highlights the major scientific achievements accomplished by professor Vallet-Regí’s research group in the field of silica-based mesoporous materials [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the design of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for infection treatment. Written within a general context of contributions in the field, this manuscript highlights the major scientific achievements accomplished by professor Vallet-Regí’s research group in the field of silica-based mesoporous materials for drug delivery. The aim is to bring out her pivotal role on the envisage of a new era of nanoantibiotics by using a deep knowledge on mesoporous materials as drug delivery systems and by applying cutting-edge technologies to design and engineer advanced nanoweapons to fight infection. This review has been divided in two main sections: the first part overviews the influence of the textural and chemical properties of silica-based mesoporous materials on the loading and release of antibiotic molecules, depending on the host–guest interactions. Furthermore, this section also remarks on the potential of molecular modelling in the design and comprehension of the performance of these release systems. The second part describes the more recent advances in the use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as versatile nanoplatforms for the development of novel targeted and stimuli-responsive antimicrobial nanoformulations for future application in personalized infection therapies. Full article
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Review
Design of 3D Scaffolds for Hard Tissue Engineering: From Apatites to Silicon Mesoporous Materials
Pharmaceutics 2021, 13(11), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13111981 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Advanced bioceramics for bone regeneration constitutes one of the pivotal interests in the multidisciplinary and far-sighted scientific trajectory of Prof. Vallet Regí. The different pathologies that affect osseous tissue substitution are considered to be one of the most important challenges from the health, [...] Read more.
Advanced bioceramics for bone regeneration constitutes one of the pivotal interests in the multidisciplinary and far-sighted scientific trajectory of Prof. Vallet Regí. The different pathologies that affect osseous tissue substitution are considered to be one of the most important challenges from the health, social and economic point of view. 3D scaffolds based on bioceramics that mimic the composition, environment, microstructure and pore architecture of hard tissues is a consolidated response to such concerns. This review describes not only the different types of materials utilized: from apatite-type to silicon mesoporous materials, but also the fabrication techniques employed to design and adequate microstructure, a hierarchical porosity (from nano to macro scale), a cell-friendly surface; the inclusion of different type of biomolecules, drugs or cells within these scaffolds and the influence on their successful performance is thoughtfully reviewed. Full article
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