Metal and Carbon Nanomaterials for Pharmaceutical Applications

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2024) | Viewed by 5177

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: nanobiotechnology; Ag nanoparticles; carbon nanomaterials; chicken embryo model; primary cel lines; stem cells; tissue engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to share your experience and knowledge in the form of high-quality empirical research papers.

In this Special Issue, particular attention will be given to metal–carbon nanocomplexes, among which silver-based nanomaterials are one of the most widely explored nanomaterials due to their unique physicochemical and biological properties. Based on their variety of properties, the mentioned nanomaterials have found various pharmaceutical applications, but their broad list is still expanding due to the growing possibilities of combining various components and the different methods of nanocomplex preparation and the new features they obtain.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest advances and original works not only on silver-based nanocomplexes but general metal–carbon nanocomplexes as pharmaceutical formulations and their applications, including novel or improved ways of preparation, resulting toxicity changes or better biocompatibility, pharmacokinetics, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties and the other therapeutic features. Above all, the results of in vitro and in vivo research on specific nanomedicinal applications of metal–carbon nanocomplexes in the treatment of various diseases would be appreciated.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but not limited to) the following: pharmaceutical formulation, delivery and controlled-release systems for drugs, vaccines, and biopharmaceuticals, pharmacokinetics and nanomedicine.

I look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Anna Hotowy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceutics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • silver nanoparticles
  • gold nanoparticles
  • platinum nanoparticles
  • copper nanoparticles
  • ferromagnetic nanoparticles
  • diamond
  • graphene
  • graphene oxide
  • reduced graphene oxide
  • model organisms
  • nanocomplex
  • nanocomposite

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3683 KiB  
Article
Development of Graphene Oxide-Based Anticancer Drug Combination Functionalized with Folic Acid as Nanocarrier for Targeted Delivery of Methotrexate
by Reyhan Yanikoglu, Canan Yagmur Karakas, Fatih Ciftci, Mert Akın Insel, Zeynep Karavelioglu, Rahmetullah Varol, Abdurrahim Yilmaz, Rabia Cakir, Hüseyin Uvet and Cem Bulent Ustundag
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(6), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16060837 (registering DOI) - 20 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Graphene has become a prominent material in cancer research in recent years. Graphene and its derivatives also attract attention as carriers in drug delivery systems. In this study, we designed a graphene oxide (GO)-based methotrexate (MTX)-loaded and folic acid (FA)-linked drug delivery system. [...] Read more.
Graphene has become a prominent material in cancer research in recent years. Graphene and its derivatives also attract attention as carriers in drug delivery systems. In this study, we designed a graphene oxide (GO)-based methotrexate (MTX)-loaded and folic acid (FA)-linked drug delivery system. MTX and FA were bound to GO synthesized from graphite. MTX/FA/GO drug delivery system and system components were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential analysis, and dimension measurement (DLS) studies. SEM and TEM images confirmed the nanosheet structure of GO synthesized from graphite, and it was shown that MTX/FA binding to GO transformed the two-dimensional GO into a three-dimensional structure. FTIR and DSC graphs confirmed that oxygen atoms were bound to GO with the formation of carboxylic, hydroxyl, epoxide, and carbonyl groups as a result of the oxidation of graphite, and GO was successfully synthesized. Additionally, these analyses showed that MTX and FA bind physicochemically to the structure of GO. The in vitro Franz diffusion test was performed as a release kinetic test. The release kinetics mathematical model and correlation coefficient (R2) of MTX-loaded GO/FA nanomaterials were found to be the Higuchi model and 0.9785, respectively. Stiffness analyses showed that adding FA to this release system facilitated the entry of the drug into the cell by directing the system to target cells. As a result of the stiffness analyses, the stiffness values of the control cell group, free MTX, and MTX/FA/GO applied cells were measured as 2.34 kPa, 1.87 kPa, and 1.56 kPa, respectively. According to these results, it was seen that MTX/FA/GO weakened the cancer cells. Combined use of the MTX/FA/GO drug delivery system had a higher cytotoxic effect than free MTX on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. The results showed that the synthesized MTX/FA/GO material has promising potential in cancer cell-specific targeted therapy for MTX as a drug delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Carbon Nanomaterials for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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16 pages, 3283 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticles Selectively Treat Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Plexiform Neurofibroma Cells at Doses That Do Not Affect Patient-Matched Schwann Cells
by Bashnona Attiah, Garrett Alewine, Mary-Kate Easter, Robert A. Coover and Cale D. Fahrenholtz
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16030371 - 7 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common neurogenic condition characterized by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the neurofibromin gene. NF1 patients are susceptible to the development of neurofibromas, including plexiform neurofibromas (pNFs), which occurs in about half of all cases. Plexiform neurofibroma [...] Read more.
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common neurogenic condition characterized by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the neurofibromin gene. NF1 patients are susceptible to the development of neurofibromas, including plexiform neurofibromas (pNFs), which occurs in about half of all cases. Plexiform neurofibroma are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors originating from Schwann cells after complete loss of neurofibromin; they can be debilitating and also transform into deadly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Here, our data indicates that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may be useful in the treatment of pNFs. We assessed the cytotoxicity of AgNPs using pNF cells and Schwann cells derived from the same NF1 patient. We found that AgNPs are selectively cytotoxic to pNF cells relative to isogenic Schwann cells. We then examined the role of neurofibromin expression on AgNP-mediated cytotoxicity; restoration of neurofibromin expression in pNF cells decreased sensitivity to AgNP, and knockdown of neurofibromin in isogenic Schwann cells increased sensitivity to AgNP, outlining a correlation between neurofibromin expression and AgNP-mediated cytotoxicity. AgNP was able to selectively remove pNF cells from a co-culture with patient-matched Schwann cells. Therefore, AgNPs represent a new approach for clinical management of NF1-associated pNF to address significant clinical need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Carbon Nanomaterials for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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15 pages, 2644 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Dressings Containing GO/ZnO Nanocomposites: A Novel Frontier in Antibacterial Wound Care
by Cristina Martín, Adalyz Ferreiro Fernández, Julia C. Salazar Romero, Juan P. Fernández-Blázquez, Jabier Mendizabal, Koldo Artola, José L. Jorcano and M. Eugenia Rabanal
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16030305 - 22 Feb 2024
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Abstract
In recent years, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a significant concern in the healthcare field, and although bactericidal dressings loaded with various classes of antibiotics have been used in clinics, in addition to other anti-infective strategies, this alarming issue necessitates [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a significant concern in the healthcare field, and although bactericidal dressings loaded with various classes of antibiotics have been used in clinics, in addition to other anti-infective strategies, this alarming issue necessitates the development of innovative strategies to combat bacterial infections and promote wound healing. Electrospinning technology has gained significant attention as a versatile method for fabricating advanced wound dressings with enhanced functionalities. This work is based on the generation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-based dressings through electrospinning, using a DomoBIO4A bioprinter, and incorporating graphene oxide (GO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites as a potent antibacterial agent. GO and ZnO nanoparticles offer unique properties, including broad-spectrum antibacterial activity for improved wound healing capabilities. The synthesis process was performed in an inexpensive one-pot reaction, and the nanocomposites were thoroughly characterized using XRD, TEM, EDX, SEM, EDS, and TGA. The antibacterial activity of the dispersions was demonstrated against E. coli and B. subtilis, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, using the well diffusion method and the spread plate method. Bactericidal mats were synthesized in a rapid and cost-effective manner, and the fiber-based structure of the electrospun dressings was studied by SEM. Evaluations of their antibacterial efficacy against E. coli and B. subtilis were explored by the disk-diffusion method, revealing an outstanding antibacterial capacity, especially against the Gram-positive strain. Overall, the findings of this research contribute to the development of next-generation wound dressings that effectively combat bacterial infections and pave the way for advanced therapeutic interventions in the field of wound care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Carbon Nanomaterials for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Review

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46 pages, 9227 KiB  
Review
Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Emerging Materials for Gene Delivery Applications
by Sara Yazdani, Mehrdad Mozaffarian, Gholamreza Pazuki, Naghmeh Hadidi, Ilia Villate-Beitia, Jon Zárate, Gustavo Puras and Jose Luis Pedraz
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(2), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16020288 - 18 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Gene therapeutics are promising for treating diseases at the genetic level, with some already validated for clinical use. Recently, nanostructures have emerged for the targeted delivery of genetic material. Nanomaterials, exhibiting advantageous properties such as a high surface-to-volume ratio, biocompatibility, facile functionalization, substantial [...] Read more.
Gene therapeutics are promising for treating diseases at the genetic level, with some already validated for clinical use. Recently, nanostructures have emerged for the targeted delivery of genetic material. Nanomaterials, exhibiting advantageous properties such as a high surface-to-volume ratio, biocompatibility, facile functionalization, substantial loading capacity, and tunable physicochemical characteristics, are recognized as non-viral vectors in gene therapy applications. Despite progress, current non-viral vectors exhibit notably low gene delivery efficiency. Progress in nanotechnology is essential to overcome extracellular and intracellular barriers in gene delivery. Specific nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon quantum dots (CQDs), nanodiamonds (NDs), and similar carbon-based structures can accommodate diverse genetic materials such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), small interference RNA (siRNA), micro RNA (miRNA), and antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). To address challenges such as high toxicity and low transfection efficiency, advancements in the features of carbon-based nanostructures (CBNs) are imperative. This overview delves into three types of CBNs employed as vectors in drug/gene delivery systems, encompassing their synthesis methods, properties, and biomedical applications. Ultimately, we present insights into the opportunities and challenges within the captivating realm of gene delivery using CBNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Carbon Nanomaterials for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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