Topical Collection "Current Research on HIV Drug Resistance"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Hezhao Ji
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
National Microbiology Laboratory at JC Wilt Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada
Interests: HIV drug resistance; HIV genetics; HIV molecular epidemiology; metagenomics; next-generation sequencing

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nearly four decades have passed since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causal agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death. This is especially the case in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the HIV/AIDS pandemic hit the hardest. While a preventative HIV vaccine remains intangible, we have witnessed remarkable progress in the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 1987. With over 50 drugs currently available and the global scaling up of ART, HIV/AIDS has been successfully converted from a fatal disease into a manageable chronic infection when effective ART is readily accessible. Despite this, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has long been a major obstacle hindering the maximization of the clinical benefits from ART. The notable increase in HIVDR prevalence, accompanying the global growth in ART usage, renders HIVDR an even more urgent issue to deal with for the sustainable reduction of HIV/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality.

In this context, Pathogens has launched a thematic issue devoted to the “Current Research on HIV Drug Resistance”, aiming to publish the latest findings in this important research field. All submissions pertaining to HIVDR are welcome! The manuscript could be presented as an original research article, review, commentary or viewpoint piece, whichever is appropriate. Topics of particular interest include but are not limited to:

  • HIVDR surveillance and epidemiology, and their applications in a public health context;
  • Novel HIVDR testing technologies with improved sensitivity, accuracy and practicability;
  • HIVDR against integrase inhibitors and newly approved ART drugs;
  • In-depth research on HIVDR mechanisms;
  • The clinical management of HIVDR.

Prof. Dr. Hezhao Ji
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • HIV
  • drug resistance
  • research
  • laboratory testing
  • clinical management
  • surveillance

Published Papers (9 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Commentary
Point-of-Care Tests for HIV Drug Resistance Monitoring: Advances and Potentials
Pathogens 2022, 11(7), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11070724 - 25 Jun 2022
Viewed by 155
Abstract
HIV/AIDS is a global public health crisis that is yet to be contained. Effective management of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) supported by close resistance monitoring is essential in achieving the WHO 95-95-95 targets, aiming to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. Point-of-care tests [...] Read more.
HIV/AIDS is a global public health crisis that is yet to be contained. Effective management of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) supported by close resistance monitoring is essential in achieving the WHO 95-95-95 targets, aiming to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. Point-of-care tests (POCT) enable decentralized HIVDR testing with a short turnaround time and minimal instrumental requirement, allowing timely initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and regimen adjustment as needed. HIVDR POCT is of particular significance in an era when ART access is scaling up at a global level and enhanced HIVDR monitoring is urgently needed, especially for low-to-middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of the currently available technologies that have been applied or potentially used in HIVDR POCT. It may also benefit the continued research and development efforts toward more innovative HIVDR diagnostics. Full article
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Review
Probe Capture Enrichment Methods for HIV and HCV Genome Sequencing and Drug Resistance Genotyping
Pathogens 2022, 11(6), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11060693 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections remain a significant public health concern worldwide. Over the years, sophisticated sequencing technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) have emerged and been utilized to monitor the spread of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), identify HIV drug resistance mutations, and [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections remain a significant public health concern worldwide. Over the years, sophisticated sequencing technologies such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) have emerged and been utilized to monitor the spread of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), identify HIV drug resistance mutations, and characterize transmission dynamics. Similar applications also apply to the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), another bloodborne viral pathogen with significant intra-host genetic diversity. Several advantages to using NGS over conventional Sanger sequencing include increased data throughput, scalability, cost-effectiveness when batched sample testing is performed, and sensitivity for quantitative detection of minority resistant variants. However, NGS alone may fail to detect genomes from pathogens present in low copy numbers. As with all sequencing platforms, the primary determinant in achieving quality sequencing data is the quality and quantity of the initial template input. Samples containing degraded RNA/DNA and/or low copy number have been a consistent sequencing challenge. To overcome this limitation probe capture enrichment is a method that has recently been employed to target, enrich, and sequence the genome of a pathogen present in low copies, and for compromised specimens that contain poor quality nucleic acids. It involves the hybridization of sequence-specific DNA or RNA probes to a target sequence, which is followed by an enrichment step via PCR to increase the number of copies of the targeted sequences after which the samples are subjected to NGS procedures. This method has been performed on pathogens such as bacteria, fungus, and viruses and allows for the sequencing of complete genomes, with high coverage. Post NGS, data analysis can be performed through various bioinformatics pipelines which can provide information on genetic diversity, genotype, virulence, and drug resistance. This article reviews how probe capture enrichment helps to increase the likelihood of sequencing HIV and HCV samples that contain low viral loads and/or are compromised. Full article
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Article
Spectrum of Atazanavir-Selected Protease Inhibitor-Resistance Mutations
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050546 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir is an option for second-line therapy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We analyzed publicly available HIV-1 protease sequences from previously PI-naïve patients with virological failure (VF) following treatment with atazanavir. Overall, 1497 patient sequences were identified, including 740 reported in [...] Read more.
Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir is an option for second-line therapy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We analyzed publicly available HIV-1 protease sequences from previously PI-naïve patients with virological failure (VF) following treatment with atazanavir. Overall, 1497 patient sequences were identified, including 740 reported in 27 published studies and 757 from datasets assembled for this analysis. A total of 63% of patients received boosted atazanavir. A total of 38% had non-subtype B viruses. A total of 264 (18%) sequences had a PI drug-resistance mutation (DRM) defined as having a Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database mutation penalty score. Among sequences with a DRM, nine major DRMs had a prevalence >5%: I50L (34%), M46I (33%), V82A (22%), L90M (19%), I54V (16%), N88S (10%), M46L (8%), V32I (6%), and I84V (6%). Common accessory DRMs were L33F (21%), Q58E (16%), K20T (14%), G73S (12%), L10F (10%), F53L (10%), K43T (9%), and L24I (6%). A novel nonpolymorphic mutation, L89T occurred in 8.4% of non-subtype B, but in only 0.4% of subtype B sequences. The 264 sequences included 3 (1.1%) interpreted as causing high-level, 14 (5.3%) as causing intermediate, and 27 (10.2%) as causing low-level darunavir resistance. Atazanavir selects for nine major and eight accessory DRMs, and one novel nonpolymorphic mutation occurring primarily in non-B sequences. Atazanavir-selected mutations confer low-levels of darunavir cross resistance. Clinical studies, however, are required to determine the optimal boosted PI to use for second-line and potentially later line therapy in LMICs. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
HIV Pretreatment Drug Resistance Trends in Mexico City, 2017–2020
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1587; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121587 - 08 Dec 2021
Viewed by 922
Abstract
In response to increasing pretreatment drug resistance (PDR), Mexico changed its national antiretroviral treatment (ART) policy, recommending and procuring second-generation integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens as preferred first-line options since 2019. We present a four-year observational study describing PDR trends across 2017–2020 at [...] Read more.
In response to increasing pretreatment drug resistance (PDR), Mexico changed its national antiretroviral treatment (ART) policy, recommending and procuring second-generation integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens as preferred first-line options since 2019. We present a four-year observational study describing PDR trends across 2017–2020 at the largest HIV diagnosis and primary care center in Mexico City. A total of 6688 baseline protease-reverse transcriptase and 6709 integrase sequences were included. PDR to any drug class was 14.4% (95% CI, 13.6–15.3%). A significant increasing trend for efavirenz/nevirapine PDR was observed (10.3 to 13.6%, p = 0.02). No increase in PDR to second-generation INSTI was observed, remaining under 0.3% across the study period. PDR was strongly associated with prior exposure to ART (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9–4.6, p < 0.0001). MSM had higher odds of PDR to efavirenz/nevirapine (aOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.7, p = 0.04), reflecting ongoing transmission of mutations such as K103NS and E138A. ART restarters showed higher representation of cisgender women and injectable drug users, higher age, and lower education level. PDR to dolutegravir/bictegravir remained low in Mexico City, although further surveillance is warranted given the short time of ART optimization. Our study identifies demographic characteristics of groups with higher risk of PDR and lost to follow-up, which may be useful to design differentiated interventions locally. Full article
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Article
Retention in Care, Mortality, Loss-to-Follow-Up, and Viral Suppression among Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve and Experienced Persons Participating in a Nationally Representative HIV Pre-Treatment Drug Resistance Survey in Mexico
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121569 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 985
Abstract
We describe associations of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) with clinical outcomes such as remaining in care, loss to follow-up (LTFU), viral suppression, and death in Mexico, in real-life clinical settings. We analyzed clinical outcomes after a two-year follow up period in participants of [...] Read more.
We describe associations of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) with clinical outcomes such as remaining in care, loss to follow-up (LTFU), viral suppression, and death in Mexico, in real-life clinical settings. We analyzed clinical outcomes after a two-year follow up period in participants of a large 2017–2018 nationally representative PDR survey cross-referenced with information of the national ministry of health HIV database. Participants were stratified according to prior ART exposure and presence of efavirenz/nevirapine PDR. Using a Fine-Gray model, we evaluated virological suppression among resistant patients, in a context of competing risk with lost to follow-up and death. A total of 1823 participants were followed-up by a median of 1.88 years (Interquartile Range (IQR): 1.59–2.02): 20 (1%) were classified as experienced + resistant; 165 (9%) naïve + resistant; 211 (11%) experienced + non-resistant; and 1427 (78%) as naïve + non-resistant. Being ART-experienced was associated with a lower probability of remaining in care (adjusted Hazard Ratio(aHR) = 0.68, 0.53–0.86, for the non-resistant group and aHR = 0.37, 0.17–0.84, for the resistant group, compared to the naïve + non-resistant group). Heterosexual cisgender women compared to men who have sex with men [MSM], had a lower viral suppression (aHR = 0.84, 0.70–1.01, p = 0.06) ART-experienced persons with NNRTI-PDR showed the worst clinical outcomes. This group was enriched with women and persons with lower education and unemployed, which suggests higher levels of social vulnerability. Full article
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Article
Factors Associated with HIV Drug Resistance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Analysis of a Complex Adaptive System
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121535 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is a complex problem with multiple interconnected and context dependent causes. Although the factors influencing HIVDR are known and well-studied, HIVDR remains a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. To understand the complexity of HIVDR, a comprehensive, systems [...] Read more.
HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is a complex problem with multiple interconnected and context dependent causes. Although the factors influencing HIVDR are known and well-studied, HIVDR remains a threat to the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. To understand the complexity of HIVDR, a comprehensive, systems approach is needed. Therefore, a local systems map was developed integrating all reported factors influencing HIVDR in the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Study area in Tanzania. The map was designed based on semi-structured interviews and workshops with people living with HIV and local actors who encounter people living with HIV during their daily activities. We visualized the feedback loops driving HIVDR, compared the local map with a systems map for Sub-Saharan Africa, previously constructed from interviews with international HIVDR experts, and suggest potential interventions to prevent HIVDR. We found several interconnected balancing and reinforcing feedback loops related to poverty, stigmatization, status disclosure, self-esteem, knowledge about HIVDR and healthcare system workload, among others, and identified three potential leverage points. Insights from this local systems map were complementary to the insights from the Sub-Saharan systems map showing that both viewpoints are needed to fully understand the system. This study provides a strong baseline for quantitative modelling, and for the identification of context-dependent, complexity-informed leverage points. Full article
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Article
Coevolved Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Influences Integrase Drug Susceptibility and Replication Fitness
Pathogens 2021, 10(9), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091070 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) are recommended agents in first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We examined the evolution of drug resistance mutations throughout HIV-1 pol and the effects on InSTI susceptibility and viral fitness. We performed single-genome sequencing of full-length HIV-1 pol in [...] Read more.
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) are recommended agents in first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We examined the evolution of drug resistance mutations throughout HIV-1 pol and the effects on InSTI susceptibility and viral fitness. We performed single-genome sequencing of full-length HIV-1 pol in a highly treatment-experienced patient, and determined drug susceptibility of patient-derived HIV-1 genomes using a phenotypic assay encompassing full-length pol gene. We show the genetic linkage of multiple InSTI-resistant haplotypes containing major resistance mutations at Y143, Q148 and N155 to protease inhibitor (PI) and reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) resistance mutations. Phenotypic analysis of viruses expressing patient-derived IN genes with eight different InSTI-resistant haplotypes alone or in combination with coevolved protease (PR) and RT genes exhibited similar levels of InSTI susceptibility, except for three haplotypes that showed up to 3-fold increases in InSTI susceptibility (p ≤ 0.032). The replicative fitness of most viruses expressing patient-derived IN only significantly decreased, ranging from 8% to 56% (p ≤ 0.01). Interestingly, the addition of coevolved PR + RT significantly increased the replicative fitness of some haplotypes by up to 73% (p ≤ 0.024). Coevolved PR + RT contributes to the susceptibility and viral fitness of patient-derived IN viruses. Maintaining patients on failing cART promotes the selection of fitter resistant strains, and thereby limits future therapy options. Full article
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Article
Limited HIV-1 Subtype C nef 3′PPT Variation in Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Naïve and Experienced People Living with HIV in Botswana
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081027 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Dolutegravir (DTG) is a potent anti-HIV drug that is used to treat HIV globally. There have been reports of mutations in the HIV-1 3′-polypurine tract (3′PPT) of the nef gene, contributing to DTG failure; however, there are limited ‘real-world’ data on this. In [...] Read more.
Dolutegravir (DTG) is a potent anti-HIV drug that is used to treat HIV globally. There have been reports of mutations in the HIV-1 3′-polypurine tract (3′PPT) of the nef gene, contributing to DTG failure; however, there are limited ‘real-world’ data on this. In addition, there is a knowledge gap on the variability of 3′PPT residues in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with and without viral load (VL) suppression. HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) whole-genome sequences from cART naïve and experienced individuals were generated using next-generation sequencing. The nef gene sequences were trimmed from the generated whole-genome sequences using standard bioinformatics tools. In addition, we generated separate integrase and nef gene sequences by Sanger sequencing of plasma samples from individuals with virologic failure (VF) while on a DTG/raltegravir (RAL)-based cART. Analysis of 3′PPT residues was performed, and comparison of proportions computed using Pearson’s chi-square test with p-values < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 6009 HIV-1C full genome sequences were generated and had a median log10 HIV-1 VL (Q1, Q3) copies/mL of 1.60 (1.60, 2.60). A total of 12 matching integrase and nef gene sequences from therapy-experienced participants failing DTG/ RAL-based cART were generated. HIV-1C 3′PPT nef gene sequences from therapy-experienced patients failing DTG cART (n = 12), cART naïve individuals (n = 1263), and individuals on cART with and without virological suppression (n = 4696) all had a highly conserved 3′PPT motif with no statistically significant differences identified. Our study confirms the high conservation of the HIV-1 nef gene 3′PPT motif in ‘real-world’ patients and showed no differences in the motif according to VL suppression or INSTI-based cART failure. Future studies should explore other HIV-1 regions outside of the pol gene for associations with DTG failure. Full article
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Article
HIV Drug Resistance Mutations Detection by Next-Generation Sequencing during Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption in China
Pathogens 2021, 10(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030264 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
Patients with antiretroviral therapy interruption have a high risk of virological failure when re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially those with HIV drug resistance. Next-generation sequencing may provide close scrutiny on their minority drug resistance variant. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with [...] Read more.
Patients with antiretroviral therapy interruption have a high risk of virological failure when re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially those with HIV drug resistance. Next-generation sequencing may provide close scrutiny on their minority drug resistance variant. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with ART interruption in five regions in China in 2016. Through Sanger and next-generation sequencing in parallel, HIV drug resistance was genotyped on their plasma samples. Rates of HIV drug resistance were compared by the McNemar tests. In total, 174 patients were included in this study, with a median 12 (interquartile range (IQR), 6–24) months of ART interruption. Most (86.2%) of them had received efavirenz (EFV)/nevirapine (NVP)-based first-line therapy for a median 16 (IQR, 7–26) months before ART interruption. Sixty-one (35.1%) patients had CRF07_BC HIV-1 strains, 58 (33.3%) CRF08_BC and 35 (20.1%) CRF01_AE. Thirty-four (19.5%) of the 174 patients were detected to harbor HIV drug-resistant variants on Sanger sequencing. Thirty-six (20.7%), 37 (21.3%), 42 (24.1%), 79 (45.4%) and 139 (79.9) patients were identified to have HIV drug resistance by next-generation sequencing at 20% (v.s. Sanger, p = 0.317), 10% (v.s. Sanger, p = 0.180), 5% (v.s. Sanger, p = 0.011), 2% (v.s. Sanger, p < 0.001) and 1% (v.s. Sanger, p < 0.001) of detection thresholds, respectively. K65R was the most common minority mutation, of 95.1% (58/61) and 93.1% (54/58) in CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC, respectively, when compared with 5.7% (2/35) in CRF01_AE (p < 0.001). In 49 patients that followed-up a median 10 months later, HIV drug resistance mutations at >20% frequency such as K103N, M184VI and P225H still existed, but with decreased frequencies. The prevalence of HIV drug resistance in ART interruption was higher than 15% in the survey. Next-generation sequencing was able to detect more minority drug resistance variants than Sanger. There was a sharp increase in minority drug resistance variants when the detection threshold was below 5%. Full article
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