Topical Collection "Biomarkers and Pathogenesis of Infectious and Autoimmune Diseases"

Editor

Prof. Dr. Albert Rizvanov
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Department of Genetics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Interests: intercellular communication; crosstalk; tumor microenvironment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infections and autoimmunity combined represent the group of diseases with highest challenge to the health system in the world. Emerging and re-emerging infections are registered globally putting the large populations at risk of getting seriously ill or death. Climate change, human activities, pathogen evolution and socio-economical status as well as human interactions with animals could contribute to infectious disease emergence and transmission. Immune response to infectious agent is essential to restore the health and establish long term protection. However, in some cases, the immune response could lead to autoagression, when leukocytes fail to properly process the antigen, leading to autoimmunity.

This collection is aimed to summarize the current knowledge on infectious and autoimmune diseases with the main emphasis to reveal biomarkers (old and novel) which could help to facilitate diagnosis, treatment and protection against infectious disease as well as autoimmune conditions.

We invite authors to contribute original manuscripts, case reports, clinical trials as well as reviews focused on infectious disease and autoimmunity.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Recent discoveries in infectious pathogens (genetic, proteomic, etc)
  • In vitro and in vivo studies aimed to identify mechanisms of infectious disease;
  • Biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of infectious disease and autoimmune conditions;
  • Transcriptome and proteome analysis of infectious pathogens and autoimmune conditions;
  • Bioinformatics approaches to characterize infectious pathogens related to clinical presentation, treatment efficacy and prognosis of various cancers;
  • Novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of infectious disease and autoimmune conditions;
  • Mechanisms of the immune system, evasion and development of autoimmunity

Prof. Dr. Albert Rizvanov
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Review
Role of Partial Splenectomy in Hematologic Childhood Disorders
Pathogens 2021, 10(11), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10111436 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that belongs to the reticular-endothelial system, directly connected to blood circulation. The spleen is greatly involved in the immune response, especially against capsulated bacteria. Splenectomy plays a fundamental role in the treatment of numerous pediatric hematologic [...] Read more.
The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that belongs to the reticular-endothelial system, directly connected to blood circulation. The spleen is greatly involved in the immune response, especially against capsulated bacteria. Splenectomy plays a fundamental role in the treatment of numerous pediatric hematologic disorders. Taking into account all the possible complications (especially infections) linked to this procedure, alternatives to total splenectomy have been sought. Partial splenectomy has been proposed as a treatment that allows the reduction of infectious risk. This approach has proven safe and feasible in most patients, but multicentric and prospective studies are necessary to more accurately define the indications for performing partial splenectomy. However, vaccinations and antibiotic prophylaxis remain fundamental for preventing serious infections, even in the case of partial splenectomy. We review anatomical and functional properties of the spleen, with a focus on medical or surgical indications to splenectomy, aiming to give practical educational information to patients and their families after splenectomy. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of partial splenectomy in children with hematologic diseases who require splenectomy. Full article
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Communication
Epitope-Specific Response of Human Milk Immunoglobulins in COVID-19 Recovered Women
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060705 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
The breastfeeding of infants by mothers who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 has become a dramatic healthcare problem. The WHO recommends that infected women should not abandon breastfeeding; however, there is still the risk of contact transmission. Convalescent donor milk may provide a defense [...] Read more.
The breastfeeding of infants by mothers who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 has become a dramatic healthcare problem. The WHO recommends that infected women should not abandon breastfeeding; however, there is still the risk of contact transmission. Convalescent donor milk may provide a defense against the aforementioned issue and can eliminate the consequences of artificial feeding. Therefore, it is vital to characterize the epitope-specific immunological landscape of human milk from women who recovered from COVID-19. We carried out a comprehensive ELISA-based analysis of blood serum and human milk from maternity patients who had recovered from COVID-19 at different trimesters of pregnancy. It was found that patients predominantly contained SARS-CoV-2 N-protein-specific immunoglobulins and had manifested the antibodies for all the antigens tested in a protein-specific and time-dependent manner. Women who recovered from COVID-19 at trimester I–II showed a noticeable decrease in the number of milk samples with sIgA specific to the N-protein, linear NTD, and RBD-SD1 epitopes, and showed an increase in samples with RBD conformation-dependent sIgA. S-antigens were found to solely induce a sIgA1 response, whereas N-protein sIgA1 and sIgA2 subclasses were involved in 100% and 33% of cases. Overall, the antibody immunological landscape of convalescent donor milk suggests that it may be a potential defense agent against COVID-19 for infants, conferring them with a passive immunity. Full article
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Article
Cytokine, Chemokine, and Metalloprotease Activation in the Serum of Patients with Nephropathia Epidemica from the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Mordovia, Russia
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050527 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Nephropathia Epidemica (NE), endemic to several Volga regions of Russia, including the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the Republic of Mordovia (RM), is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by infection with rodent-borne orthohantaviruses. Although NE cases have been [...] Read more.
Nephropathia Epidemica (NE), endemic to several Volga regions of Russia, including the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the Republic of Mordovia (RM), is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by infection with rodent-borne orthohantaviruses. Although NE cases have been reported for decades, little is known about the hantavirus strains associated with human infection in these regions. There is also limited understanding of the pathogenesis of NE in the RT and the RM. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted comparative analyses of patients with NE in the RT and the RM. Clinical symptoms were more severe in patients with NE from the RM with longer observed duration of fever symptoms and hospitalization. Analysis of patient sera showed changes in the levels of numerous cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in patients with NE from both the RT and the RM, suggesting leukocyte activation, extracellular matrix degradation, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Interestingly, levels of several cytokines were distinctly different between patients NE from the RT when compared with those from the RM. These differences were not related to the genetic variation of orthohantaviruses circulating in those regions, as sequence analysis showed that Puumala virus (PUUV) was the causative agent of NE in these regions. Additionally, only the “Russia” (RUS) genetic lineage of PUUV was detected in the serum samples of patients with NE from both the RT and the RM. We therefore conclude that differences in serum cytokine, chemokine, and MMP levels between the RT and the RM are related to environmental factors and lifestyle differences that influence individual immune responses to orthohantavirus infection. Full article
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Article
Drift of the Subgingival Periodontal Microbiome during Chronic Periodontitis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050504 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Since periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are complex diseases, a thorough understanding of their pathogenesis requires knowing the relationship of these pathologies with other disorders and environmental factors. In this study, the representability of the subgingival periodontal microbiome of 46 subjects was [...] Read more.
Since periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are complex diseases, a thorough understanding of their pathogenesis requires knowing the relationship of these pathologies with other disorders and environmental factors. In this study, the representability of the subgingival periodontal microbiome of 46 subjects was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun sequencing of pooled samples. We examined 15 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 15 patients with chronic periodontitis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (CPT2DM), and 16 healthy subjects (Control). The severity of generalized chronic periodontitis in both periodontitis groups of patients (CP and CPT2DM) was moderate (stage II). The male to female ratios were approximately equal in each group (22 males and 24 females); the average age of the subjects was 53.9 ± 7.3 and 54.3 ± 7.2 years, respectively. The presence of overweight patients (Body Mass Index (BMI) 30–34.9 kg/m2) and patients with class 1–2 obesity (BMI 35–45.9 kg/m2) was significantly higher in the CPT2DM group than in patients having only chronic periodontitis or in the Control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference in all clinical indices between the CP and CPT2DM groups. An analysis of the metagenomic data revealed that the alpha diversity in the CPT2DM group was increased compared to that in the CP and Control groups. The microbiome biomarkers associated with experimental groups were evaluated. In both groups of patients with periodontitis, the relative abundance of Porphyromonadaceae was increased compared to that in the Control group. The CPT2DM group was characterized by a lower relative abundance of Streptococcaceae/Pasteurellaceae and a higher abundance of Leptotrichiaceae compared to those in the CP and Control groups. Furthermore, the CP and CPT2DM groups differed in terms of the relative abundance of Veillonellaceae (which was decreased in the CPT2DM group compared to CP) and Neisseriaceae (which was increased in the CPT2DM group compared to CP). In addition, differences in bacterial content were identified by a combination of shotgun sequencing of pooled samples and genome-resolved metagenomics. The results indicate that there are subgingival microbiome-specific features in patients with chronic periodontitis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Review
Effects of Mycoplasmas on the Host Cell Signaling Pathways
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040308 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms. Reduced sizes of their genomes put constraints on the ability of these bacteria to live autonomously and make them highly dependent on the nutrients produced by host cells. Importantly, at the organism level, mycoplasmal infections may cause [...] Read more.
Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms. Reduced sizes of their genomes put constraints on the ability of these bacteria to live autonomously and make them highly dependent on the nutrients produced by host cells. Importantly, at the organism level, mycoplasmal infections may cause pathological changes to the host, including cancer and severe immunological reactions. At the molecular level, mycoplasmas often activate the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) inflammatory response and concomitantly inhibit the p53-mediated response, which normally triggers the cell cycle and apoptosis. Thus, mycoplasmal infections may be considered as cancer-associated factors. At the same time, mycoplasmas through their membrane lipoproteins (LAMPs) along with lipoprotein derivatives (lipopeptide MALP-2, macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2) are able to modulate anti-inflammatory responses via nuclear translocation and activation of Nrf2 (the nuclear factor-E2-related anti-inflammatory transcription factor 2). Thus, interactions between mycoplasmas and host cells are multifaceted and depend on the cellular context. In this review, we summarize the current information on the role of mycoplasmas in affecting the host’s intracellular signaling mediated by the interactions between transcriptional factors p53, Nrf2, and NF-κB. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying pathologic processes associated with reprogramming eukaryotic cells that arise during the mycoplasma-host cell interaction should facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat oncogenic and inflammatory processes. Full article
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Article
In Vivo Antimicrobial and Wound-Healing Activity of Resveratrol, Dihydroquercetin, and Dihydromyricetin against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040296 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
An increase in the spread of antibiotic-resistant opportunistic microorganisms causes serious problems in the treatment of purulent infections, burns, and trophic ulcers. We tested the antimicrobial activity in vivo of three polyphenols, Resveratrol, Dihydroquercetin (Taxifolin), and Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin) from Norway spruce bark to [...] Read more.
An increase in the spread of antibiotic-resistant opportunistic microorganisms causes serious problems in the treatment of purulent infections, burns, and trophic ulcers. We tested the antimicrobial activity in vivo of three polyphenols, Resveratrol, Dihydroquercetin (Taxifolin), and Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin) from Norway spruce bark to promote the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans from wounds. Purulent infection was modelled on wounds in rats infected with suspensions containing 109 CFU (colony-forming unit)/mL of pathogens. The wound area was treated daily with solutions of the polyphenols or placebo for 14 days after the beginning of the treatment. The animals were examined daily, and each stage of the wound healing (inflammation, granulation, and maturation (marginal epithelialisation) was documented. The planimetric analysis of the wound recovery percentage was performed on the 3rd, 10th, and 14th day after the start of curing. Then, one echelon (three or four animals from each subgroup) was withdrawn from the experiment on days 3 (three animals), 10 (three animals), and 14 (four animals) for microscopy analysis of cytological composition of their wound defects by microscopy and microbiological analysis of their contamination with pathogens. Our results show that they are also able to suppress mast cell infiltration and stimulate lymphocyte and macrophage (monocyte) infiltration into the wound. Resveratrol stimulated the replacement of the scar with normal tissue (with a clear boundary between the dermis and epidermis) and the restoration of hair follicles. Resveratrol turned out to be significantly better than some commercial antimicrobial (Levomecol) and antifungal (Clotrimazole) ointments and can be proposed as a promising drug for topical use for the treatment of trophic ulcers and burns. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Review
Inflammasomes as Targets for Adjuvants
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040252 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Inflammasomes are an essential part of the innate immune system. They are necessary for the development of a healthy immune response against infectious diseases. Inflammasome activation leads to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, which stimulate the adaptive immune [...] Read more.
Inflammasomes are an essential part of the innate immune system. They are necessary for the development of a healthy immune response against infectious diseases. Inflammasome activation leads to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18, which stimulate the adaptive immune system. Inflammasomes activators can be used as adjuvants to provide and maintain the strength of the immune response. This review is focused on the mechanisms of action and the effects of adjuvants on inflammasomes. The therapeutic and prophylaxis significance of inflammasomes in infectious diseases is also discussed. Full article
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Case Report
Cerebral HSV-1 Vasculitis as a Fatal Complication of Immunosuppression in Non-Hodgkin´s Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030193 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Patients with lymphoma are predisposed to infection because of the immunocompromised state related to the disease itself and as a consequence of chemo-/radiotherapy. Here, we report a case of Herpes-simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) in an immunosuppressed patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), [...] Read more.
Patients with lymphoma are predisposed to infection because of the immunocompromised state related to the disease itself and as a consequence of chemo-/radiotherapy. Here, we report a case of Herpes-simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) in an immunosuppressed patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), a rare indolent variant of non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma (NHL). The course was complicated febrile neutropenia and HSV-1-related cerebral vasculitis causing progressive ischemic stroke. This case illustrates the expanding spectrum of atypical clinical and radiological manifestations of HSE in patients treated with myelotoxic drugs. Moreover, we summarize the few central nervous system manifestations of SMZL reported in the literature and discuss distinct causes of neurological deterioration in patients with NHL. Full article
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