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Article

Cytokine, Chemokine, and Metalloprotease Activation in the Serum of Patients with Nephropathia Epidemica from the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Mordovia, Russia

1
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
2
Infectious Diseases Department, Kazan State Medical Academy, 420012 Kazan, Russia
3
Infectious Diseases Department, National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, 430005 Saransk, Russia
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonington Campus, The University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
5
Doconvid.ai, Bestech Business Tower, Mohali 160055, India
6
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala 147004, India
7
Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala 147004, India
8
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala 147004, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050527
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 24 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
Nephropathia Epidemica (NE), endemic to several Volga regions of Russia, including the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the Republic of Mordovia (RM), is a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by infection with rodent-borne orthohantaviruses. Although NE cases have been reported for decades, little is known about the hantavirus strains associated with human infection in these regions. There is also limited understanding of the pathogenesis of NE in the RT and the RM. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted comparative analyses of patients with NE in the RT and the RM. Clinical symptoms were more severe in patients with NE from the RM with longer observed duration of fever symptoms and hospitalization. Analysis of patient sera showed changes in the levels of numerous cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in patients with NE from both the RT and the RM, suggesting leukocyte activation, extracellular matrix degradation, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Interestingly, levels of several cytokines were distinctly different between patients NE from the RT when compared with those from the RM. These differences were not related to the genetic variation of orthohantaviruses circulating in those regions, as sequence analysis showed that Puumala virus (PUUV) was the causative agent of NE in these regions. Additionally, only the “Russia” (RUS) genetic lineage of PUUV was detected in the serum samples of patients with NE from both the RT and the RM. We therefore conclude that differences in serum cytokine, chemokine, and MMP levels between the RT and the RM are related to environmental factors and lifestyle differences that influence individual immune responses to orthohantavirus infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nephropathia Epidemica; cytokine; chemokine; metalloprotease Nephropathia Epidemica; cytokine; chemokine; metalloprotease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martynova, E.; Davidyuk, Y.; Kabwe, E.; Garanina, E.E.; Shakirova, V.; Pavelkina, V.; Uskova, Y.; Stott, R.J.; Foster, T.L.; Markelova, M.; Goyal, M.; Gupta, A.; Bhola, M.; Kumar, V.; Baranwal, M.; Rizvanov, A.A.; Khaiboullina, S.F. Cytokine, Chemokine, and Metalloprotease Activation in the Serum of Patients with Nephropathia Epidemica from the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Pathogens 2021, 10, 527. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050527

AMA Style

Martynova E, Davidyuk Y, Kabwe E, Garanina EE, Shakirova V, Pavelkina V, Uskova Y, Stott RJ, Foster TL, Markelova M, Goyal M, Gupta A, Bhola M, Kumar V, Baranwal M, Rizvanov AA, Khaiboullina SF. Cytokine, Chemokine, and Metalloprotease Activation in the Serum of Patients with Nephropathia Epidemica from the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Mordovia, Russia. Pathogens. 2021; 10(5):527. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050527

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martynova, Ekaterina, Yuriy Davidyuk, Emmanuel Kabwe, Ekaterina E. Garanina, Venera Shakirova, Vera Pavelkina, Yulia Uskova, Robert J. Stott, Toshana L. Foster, Maria Markelova, Mehendi Goyal, Abhimat Gupta, Mannan Bhola, Vinay Kumar, Manoj Baranwal, Albert A. Rizvanov, and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina. 2021. "Cytokine, Chemokine, and Metalloprotease Activation in the Serum of Patients with Nephropathia Epidemica from the Republic of Tatarstan and the Republic of Mordovia, Russia" Pathogens 10, no. 5: 527. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050527

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