Special Issue "Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis, Infection Prevention and Treatment"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Davide Maria Ferraris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy
Interests: M. tuberculosis, enzymology, biochemistry, structural biology
Dr. Riccardo Miggiano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy
Interests: biochemistry; structural biology; M. tuberculosis; DNA repair mechanisms; biochemistry; structural biology
Prof. Dr. Menico Rizzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy
Interests: M. tuberculosis; malaria; NAD metabolism; biochemistry; structural biology

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The global scale and the dramatic number of individuals that succumb to tuberculosis necessitates drastic measures to fight this widespread, debilitating disease. The last data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) in their annual “Global Tuberculosis Report” [1] maintain tuberculosis as the ninth cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of mortality by a single infectious agent, with the highest rate of infections and death toll rate mostly concentrated in developing and low-income countries.

Tuberculosis is also considered an impairing factor for economic growth and for the improvement of the general public health in those countries, as it drains human and financial resources that would otherwise be invested in the economy [2]. Hence, there is a pressing need to study and develop new prevention protocols and treatments for tuberculosis.

Public health policy makers, supranational organizations, and governing bodies are currently joining efforts in raising awareness in the general population regarding M. tuberculosis contagion and in establishing guidelines and protocols for fighting tuberculosis [3]. At the same time, pharmaceutical companies research new therapies and approaches for finding new antitubercular diagnostics and treatments, the commercial sustainability of which should not be overlooked in order to make antitubercular treatments accessible and inclusive [4].

The aim of the current Special Issue is to collect, update, and harmonize the most recent literature on tuberculosis. We aim to touch herein the most relevant aspects of M. tuberculosis infection as well as its diagnosis and treatments, spanning from the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenesis, to the recapitulation of the host immune responses against tuberculosis, to the analysis of available tools for tuberculosis prevention, and to the latest advancements in antitubercular drug discovery.

Our intent is also to focus the attention not only on the aspects of tuberculosis research (although they are of fundamental importance for advancing antitubercular treatments), but also on the standpoints and the priorities of healthcare policy makers, who are those that contribute in dictating the guidelines to which governments and healthcare providers must adhere to fight tuberculosis.

While mainly dedicated to scientists and to experts in the field, this Special Issue reaches out to a broader audience with the aim of raising awareness not only on the scientific aspects of tuberculosis research, but also with the aim of encouraging the readers to gain a comprehensive vision of the multifaceted aspects of tuberculosis research, management, and treatment.

  1. World Health Organization Global tuberculosis Report WHO 2018; 2018; Vol. 69.
  2. Reid, M.J.A.; Arinaminpathy, N.; Bloom, A.; Bloom, B.R.; Boehme, C.; Chaisson, R.; Chin, D.P.; Churchyard, G.; Cox, H.; Ditiu, L.; et al. Building a tuberculosis-free world: The Lancet Commission on tuberculosis. Lancet 2019, 393, 1331–1384.
  3. Political declaration of the High-Level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Fight Against Tuberculosis : 2018.
  4. Treatment Action Group Tuberculosis Research Funding Trends 2005-2017; 2018;

Dr. Davide Maria Ferraris
Dr. Riccardo Miggiano
Prof. Dr. Menico Rizzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • M. tuberculosis
  • tuberculosis
  • host-pathogen interactions
  • immune response
  • antitubercular drug discovery
  • antitubercular treatments

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Detection of Second Line Drug Resistance among Drug Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates in Botswana
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040208 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
The emergence and transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains is a threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control. The early detection of drug resistance is critical for patient management. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
The emergence and transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains is a threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control. The early detection of drug resistance is critical for patient management. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of isolates with additional second-line resistance among rifampicin and isoniazid resistant and MDR-TB isolates. A total of 66 M.tb isolates received at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory between March 2012 and October 2013 with resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin or both were analyzed in this study. The genotypes of the M.tb isolates were determined by spoligotyping and second-line drug susceptibility testing was done using the Hain Genotype MTBDRsl line probe assay version 2.0. The treatment outcomes were defined according to the Botswana national and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Of the 57 isolates analyzed, 33 (58%) were MDR-TB, 4 (7%) were additionally resistant to flouroquinolones and 3 (5%) were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs. The most common fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation detected was gyrA A90V. All XDR-TB cases remained smear or culture positive throughout the treatment. Our study findings indicate the importance of monitoring drug resistant TB cases to ensure rapid detection of second-line drug resistance. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Tentative title "Changes in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the course of anti-tuberculosis therapy"
 
Abstract: In the present study, we focused on three serial clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing B0/W148 cluster from one patient with pulmonary tuberculosis, to evaluate the changes in metabolism during anti-tuberculosis therapy. According to WGS, we determined 9 polymorphisms, which occurred in a stepwise or transient manner during treatment and were linked to resistance (GyrA D94A; inhA t-8a) or virulence. The effects of inhA t-8a mutation were observed on the proteomic and transcriptomic levels. Also, our results demonstrated increased representation of the FAS-II system proteins (HtdX, HtdY) in strains obtained after therapy. Changes in lipid metabolism, transport systems, and virulence factors have been observed at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. These changes certainly indicate the regulation of bacterial pathways due to anti-tuberculosis therapy and the effect of anti-TB drugs.
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