Special Issue "Hantavirus Infections"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tarja Sironen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medicum, Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Interests: rodent- and bat-borne pathogens; virus evolution; One Health; emerging infections; disease ecology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus) are zoonotic pathogens that cause in humans disease with severity ranging from subclinical to fatal. In contrast, the infection in the reservoir host is thought to be asymptomatic and persistent. Rodents were considered the main hosts of hantaviruses, but the reservoir host range has expanded to mammalian species of the orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. In addition, the catalogue of hantavirus species is increasing, as is the notified global distribution of hantavirus infections. Surveillance data is needed to assess the current disease burden of hantavirus infections and diagnostic tests need to be updated to detect all hantavirus pathogens. Research on the factors affecting hantavirus transmission and maintenance in the different reservoir hosts, and spillover to humans are urgently needed to plan intervention strategies and predict changes due to environmental change. This Special Issue values updates on the epidemiology of hantavirus infections and assessment of pathogenicity of the newly detected hantaviruses. Reports on all aspects of hantavirus biology are welcome.

Dr. Tarja Sironen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hantavirus
  • hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
  • hantavirus (cardio)pulmonary syndrome
  • reservoir host
  • rodent-borne virus
  • zoonoses
  • epidemiology
  • virus evolution
  • pathogenesis
  • disease ecology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
How Bank Vole-PUUV Interactions Influence the Eco-Evolutionary Processes Driving Nephropathia Epidemica Epidemiology—An Experimental and Genomic Approach
Pathogens 2020, 9(10), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100789 - 25 Sep 2020
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Abstract
In Europe, Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Despite the presence of its reservoir, the bank vole, on most of French territory, the geographic distribution of NE cases is heterogeneous [...] Read more.
In Europe, Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Despite the presence of its reservoir, the bank vole, on most of French territory, the geographic distribution of NE cases is heterogeneous and NE endemic and non-endemic areas have been reported. In this study we analyzed whether bank vole-PUUV interactions could partly shape these epidemiological differences. We performed crossed-experimental infections using wild bank voles from French endemic (Ardennes) and non-endemic (Loiret) areas and two French PUUV strains isolated from these areas. The serological response and dynamics of PUUV infection were compared between the four cross-infection combinations. Due to logistical constraints, this study was based on a small number of animals. Based on this experimental design, we saw a stronger serological response and presence of PUUV in excretory organs (bladder) in bank voles infected with the PUUV endemic strain. Moreover, the within-host viral diversity in excretory organs seemed to be higher than in other non-excretory organs for the NE endemic cross-infection but not for the NE non-endemic cross-infection. Despite the small number of rodents included, our results showed that genetically different PUUV strains and in a lesser extent their interaction with sympatric bank voles, could affect virus replication and diversity. This could impact PUUV excretion/transmission between rodents and to humans and in turn at least partly shape NE epidemiology in France. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantavirus Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Flash-Like Albuminuria in Acute Kidney Injury Caused by Puumala Hantavirus Infection
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080615 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 539
Abstract
Transient proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI) are characteristics of Puumala virus (PUUV) infection. Albuminuria peaks around the fifth day and associates with AKI severity. To evaluate albuminuria disappearance rate, we quantified albumin excretion at different time points after the fever onset. The [...] Read more.
Transient proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI) are characteristics of Puumala virus (PUUV) infection. Albuminuria peaks around the fifth day and associates with AKI severity. To evaluate albuminuria disappearance rate, we quantified albumin excretion at different time points after the fever onset. The study included 141 consecutive patients hospitalized due to acute PUUV infection in Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Timed overnight albumin excretion (cU-Alb) was measured during the acute phase in 133 patients, once or twice during the convalescent phase within three months in 94 patients, and at six months in 36 patients. During hospitalization, 30% of the patients had moderately increased albuminuria (cU-Alb 20–200 μg/min), while 57% presented with severely increased albuminuria (cU-Alb >200 μg/min). Median cU-Alb was 311 μg/min (range 2.2–6460) ≤7 days after fever onset, 235 μg/min (range 6.8–5479) at 8–13 days and 2.8 μg/min (range 0.5–18.2) at 14–20 days. After that, only one of the measurements showed albuminuria (35.4 μg/min at day 44). At six months, the median cU-Alb was 2.0 μg/min (range 0.6–14.5). Albuminuria makes a flash-like appearance in PUUV infection and returns rapidly to normal levels within 2–3 weeks after fever onset. In the case of AKI, this is a unique phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantavirus Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Temporal Evolutionary Patterns in Puumala Orthohantavirus (PUUV) S Segment
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070548 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
The S segment of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus)-associated Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) contains two overlapping open reading frames coding for the nucleocapsid (N) and a non-structural (NSs) protein. To identify the influence of bank vole population dynamics on PUUV S segment sequence [...] Read more.
The S segment of bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus)-associated Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) contains two overlapping open reading frames coding for the nucleocapsid (N) and a non-structural (NSs) protein. To identify the influence of bank vole population dynamics on PUUV S segment sequence evolution and test for spillover infections in sympatric rodent species, during 2010–2014, 883 bank voles, 357 yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), 62 wood mice (A. sylvaticus), 149 common voles (Microtus arvalis) and 8 field voles (M. agrestis) were collected in Baden-Wuerttemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. In total, 27.9% and 22.3% of bank voles were positive for PUUV-reactive antibodies and PUUV-specific RNA, respectively. One of eight field voles was PUUV RNA-positive, indicating a spillover infection, but none of the other species showed evidence of PUUV infection. Phylogenetic and isolation-by-distance analyses demonstrated a spatial clustering of PUUV S segment sequences. In the hantavirus outbreak years 2010 and 2012, PUUV RNA prevalence was higher in our study regions compared to non-outbreak years 2011, 2013 and 2014. NSs amino acid and nucleotide sequence types showed temporal and/or local variation, whereas the N protein was highly conserved in the NSs overlapping region and, to a lower rate, in the N alone coding part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantavirus Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of the Puumala orthohantavirus Strains in the Pre-Kama Area of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070540 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) commonly diagnosed in Europe. The majority of HFRS cases in the European part of Russia are diagnosed in the Volga Federal District, which includes the Republic [...] Read more.
Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) commonly diagnosed in Europe. The majority of HFRS cases in the European part of Russia are diagnosed in the Volga Federal District, which includes the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). The current study aims to analyze the genetic variability of PUUV in Pre-Kama region of the RT bounded by the Volga, Kama, and Vyatka rivers. In 2017, bank voles were caught in seven isolated forest traps in the Pre-Kama region and for the 26 PUUV-positive samples, the partial small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segment sequences were obtained and analyzed. It was determined that all identified PUUV strains belong to the Russian (RUS) genetic lineage; however, the genetic distance between strains is not directly correlated with the geographical distance between bank vole populations. One of the identified strains has S and L segments produced from one parental strain, while the M segment was supplied by another, suggesting that this strain could be the reassortant. We suggest that the revealed pattern of the PUUV strains distribution could be the result of a series of successive multidirectional migratory flows of the bank voles to the Pre-Kama region in the postglacial period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantavirus Infections)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ecology of Neglected Rodent-Borne American Orthohantaviruses
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050325 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The number of documented American orthohantaviruses has increased significantly over recent decades, but most fundamental research has remained focused on just two of them: Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of American orthohantaviruses are known to cause disease in [...] Read more.
The number of documented American orthohantaviruses has increased significantly over recent decades, but most fundamental research has remained focused on just two of them: Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of American orthohantaviruses are known to cause disease in humans, and most of these pathogenic strains were not described prior to human cases, indicating the importance of understanding all members of the virus clade. In this review, we summarize information on the ecology of under-studied rodent-borne American orthohantaviruses to form general conclusions and highlight important gaps in knowledge. Information regarding the presence and genetic diversity of many orthohantaviruses throughout the distributional range of their hosts is minimal and would significantly benefit from virus isolations to indicate a reservoir role. Additionally, few studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying transmission routes and factors affecting the environmental persistence of orthohantaviruses, limiting our understanding of factors driving prevalence fluctuations. As landscapes continue to change, host ranges and human exposure to orthohantaviruses likely will as well. Research on the ecology of neglected orthohantaviruses is necessary for understanding both current and future threats to human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantavirus Infections)
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