Magma Ascent and Evolution: Insights from Petrology and Geochemistry

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2021) | Viewed by 11466

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: volcanology; textural characterizations of geomaterials and their synthetic analogues using XRF, EPMA-WDS, SEM-EDS and X-Ray microtomography; degassing and solidification of silicate melts

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Interests: igneous petrology; petrology of alkaline magmas; mineral-melt thermobarometry; mantle metasomatism; volatiles cycle; geodynamics

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Interests: igneous petrology applied to active volcanic systems; magmatic crystallization; dynamics of volcanic feeding systems; thermobarometry; geochemistry of melt inclusions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magmatism is part of the global ‘engine’ that transfers heat and matter from the Earth’s interior towards the surface. The volcanic activity controls the chemical evolution of the Earth crust and the composition of the atmosphere, providing fundamental resources for the onset of life and, at the same time, representing a threat for human beings.

The advancement in understanding the main dynamics of magmatic processes has constantly taken advantage of the continuous improvement of textural (2D and 3D) micro-imaging and petrologic experiments and analysis of trace elements, isotopes and volatile species. These investigations allowed the development of new theoretical models and robust empirical calibrations, unravelling complex dynamics in igneous systems, such as crystallization, differentiation, assimilation, mixing, storage, transport, and degassing. Still, a lot of work has to be done to get to a more precise evaluation of the interplay of these processes and the timescales at which they occur.

In this Special Issue, we encourage authors to submit the results of research aimed at understanding the physico-chemical behaviour of magmas at pre-, syn-, and post-eruptive conditions. Contributions may embrace a broad spectrum of disciplines applied to both natural and synthetic products, such as petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy, and volcanology.

Dr. Gabriele Lanzafame
Dr. Federico Casetta
Dr. Pier Paolo Giacomoni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plumbing system
  • magma evolution, crystal texture
  • thermobarometry
  • magma mush
  • magmatic petrology
  • volcanology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 4975 KiB  
Article
A Crystal Mush Perspective Explains Magma Variability at La Fossa Volcano (Vulcano, Italy)
by Simone Costa, Matteo Masotta, Anna Gioncada and Marco Pistolesi
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101094 - 5 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
The eruptive products of the last 1000 years at La Fossa volcano on the island of Vulcano (Italy) are characterized by abrupt changes of chemical composition that span from latite to rhyolite. The wide variety of textural features of these products has given [...] Read more.
The eruptive products of the last 1000 years at La Fossa volcano on the island of Vulcano (Italy) are characterized by abrupt changes of chemical composition that span from latite to rhyolite. The wide variety of textural features of these products has given rise to several petrological models dealing with the mingling/mixing processes involving mafic-intermediate and rhyolitic magmas. In this paper, we use published whole-rock data for the erupted products of La Fossa and combine them in geochemical and thermodynamic modelling in order to provide new constrains for the interpretations of the dynamics of the active magmatic system. The obtained results allow us to picture a polybaric plumbing system characterized by multiple magma reservoirs and related crystal mushes, formed from time to time during the differentiation of shoshonitic magmas, to produce latites, trachytes and rhyolites. The residing crystal mushes are periodically perturbated by new, fresh magma injections that, on one hand, induce the partial melting of the mush and, on the other hand, favor the extraction of highly differentiated interstitial melts. The subsequent mixing and mingling of mush-derived melts ultimately determine the formation of magmas erupted at La Fossa, whose textural and chemical features are otherwise not explained by simple assimilation and fractional crystallization models. In such a system, the compositional variability of the erupted products reflects the complexity of the physical and chemical interactions among recharging magmas and the crystal mushes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magma Ascent and Evolution: Insights from Petrology and Geochemistry)
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20 pages, 5244 KiB  
Article
The Temporal Variation of Magma Plumbing System of the Kattadake Pyroclastics in the Zao Volcano, Northeastern Japan
by Mirai Takebe, Masao Ban, Motohiro Sato and Yuki Nishi
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040430 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
The geologic and petrologic study of the Kattadake pyroclastics (around 10 ka) from the Zao volcano (NE Japan) revealed the structure of the magma plumbing system and the mixing behavior of the shallow chamber. The Kattadake pyroclastic succession is divided into lower and [...] Read more.
The geologic and petrologic study of the Kattadake pyroclastics (around 10 ka) from the Zao volcano (NE Japan) revealed the structure of the magma plumbing system and the mixing behavior of the shallow chamber. The Kattadake pyroclastic succession is divided into lower and upper parts by a remarkable discontinuity. All rocks belong to medium-K, calc-alkaline rock series and correspond to ol-cpx-opx basaltic-andesite to andesite with 20–28 vol% phenocrystic modal percentage. All rocks were formed by mixing between andesitic magma and near aphyric basalt. The petrologic features of andesites of lower and upper parts are similar, 59–61 wt% SiO2, having low-An plagioclase and low-Mg pyroxenes, with pre-eruptive conditions corresponding to 960–980 °C, 1.9–3.5 kb, and 1.9–3.4 wt% H2O. However, the basalts were ca. 49.4 wt% SiO2 with Fo~84 olivine in the lower part and 51.8 wt% SiO2 with Fo~81 olivine and high-An plagioclase the in upper one. The percentage of basaltic magma in the mixing process was lower, but the temperature of the basalt was higher in the lower part than the upper one. This means that the shallow magma chamber was reactivated more efficiently by the hotter basalts and that the mixed magma with a 70–80% of melt fraction was formed by a smaller percentage of the basaltic magma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magma Ascent and Evolution: Insights from Petrology and Geochemistry)
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18 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
The Rare Trachyandesitic Lavas at Mount Etna: A Case Study to Investigate Eruptive Process and Propose a New Interpretation for Magma Genesis
by Gabriele Lanzafame, Federico Casetta, Pier Paolo Giacomoni, Massimo Coltorti and Carmelo Ferlito
Minerals 2021, 11(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030333 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
The growth of Mount Etna volcano reflects the superimposition of various eruptive centers, the most voluminous of which is the Ellittico, whose stratigraphic sequence is well exposed on the steep walls of Valle del Bove. The uppermost levels of the sequence have been [...] Read more.
The growth of Mount Etna volcano reflects the superimposition of various eruptive centers, the most voluminous of which is the Ellittico, whose stratigraphic sequence is well exposed on the steep walls of Valle del Bove. The uppermost levels of the sequence have been sampled and investigated through a new set of geochemical data on mineral phases and bulk rock. Sampled rocks display a marked bimodality with aphyric banded trachyandesites, which are some of the most evolved and rare products of the entire Etnean succession (SiO2 58–60 wt.%), intercalated in plagioclase rich porphyritic mugearites (SiO2 49–50 wt.%, P.I. 35–40). In this paper, we provide a detailed textural, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of these products, providing a new interpretative model for their genesis and significance in the context of the Etnean system. Our approach discusses, in a critical way, the “classic” fractional crystallization model of magmas, not supported by field evidence, and proposes a novel hypothesis in which the aphyric-banded trachyandesites represent be the primary products of a gas-induced partial melting of hypabyssal sills and dykes. This hypothesis represents a step towards a comprehensive description of igneous systems that takes into account not exclusively the evolution of basaltic melts, but also the role of volatile contributions in governing volcanic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magma Ascent and Evolution: Insights from Petrology and Geochemistry)
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16 pages, 10333 KiB  
Article
Origin of Mesozoic Porphyritic Rocks and Regional Magmatic Evolution in the Zijinshan Ore Field of Fujian Province, China: Hf-O Isotope Characteristics of Magmatic Zircons
by Wenhui Zhang, Liyuan Wang, Xupeng Lv, Xiaomin Li, Shuaiqi Yan and Juntao Nie
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121143 - 20 Dec 2020
Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Mesozoic porphyritic rocks from the Zijinshan area, southwestern Fujian Province, China, are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition. The whole-rock SiO2 contents of these rocks are between 62.5% and 78.1%. Magmatic zircon from the Mesozoic porphyritic rocks was determined via secondary-ionization mass spectrometry [...] Read more.
Mesozoic porphyritic rocks from the Zijinshan area, southwestern Fujian Province, China, are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition. The whole-rock SiO2 contents of these rocks are between 62.5% and 78.1%. Magmatic zircon from the Mesozoic porphyritic rocks was determined via secondary-ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the U-Pb age and Hf and O isotopes. The zircon U-Pb ages could be mainly divided into three age groups: Group 1: ~138.8 Ma; Group 2: 109.2~107.4 Ma; and Group 3: 99.7~98.2 Ma. The εHf(t) and δ18O values of the porphyritic zircons showed that the porphyritic rocks in Group 2 were more affected by mantle-derived magma. Combined with previous research results, the medium-acidic magmatism in the southwestern Fujian Province can be divided into eight periods: Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Middle Neoproterozoic, Silurian to Lower Devonian, Permian to Triassic, Middle Jurassic to early Lower Cretaceous, late Lower Cretaceous, and late Lower Cretaceous to early Upper Cretaceous. The Paleoproterozoic crust was the predominant magmatic source for the subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic magmatism, but the only melts that were closely related to mineralization were derived from partial melting of the Mesoproterozoic crust and a more depleted upper mantle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magma Ascent and Evolution: Insights from Petrology and Geochemistry)
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