Special Issue "Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Gut Microbiota".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Haruki Kitazawa

International Education and Research Center for Food and Agricultural Immunology (CFAI), Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Aobaku, Sendai, 981-8555, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-22-717-8713
Fax: +81 22 717 8715
Interests: probiotics; immunobiotics; food immunology; feed immunology; mucosal immunology; inflammation
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Julio Villena

Laboratory of Immunobiotechnology, Reference Centre for Lactobacilli (CERELA-CONICET), Chacabuco 145, CP400, San Miguel de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina.
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; mucosal immune system; antiviral immunity; pattern recognition receptors; probiotics; immunobiotics; functional genomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, scientists have provided encouraging evidence that probiotic microorganisms are valuable in the prevention and treatment of different diseases in humans and animals. Moreover, great advances have been made in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of probiotic action.

In this Special Issue, authors are encouraged to publish original research and review articles related to the advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in probiotics’ action, as well as in novel applications of probiotic microorganisms. Works describing advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of probiotic health-promoting activities and in identifying the biomarkers of probiotic actions are welcome, including those involving comparative and functional genomics

Dr. Haruki Kitazawa
Guest Editor

Dr. Julio Villena
Co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Immunobiotics
  • Lactobacilli
  • Bifidobacteria
  • health-promotion
  • molecular interaction
  • genomics
  • probiogenomics
  • biomarkers
  • novel applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Probiotic Microorganisms: A Closer Look
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020017
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent decades; scientists have provided encouraging evidence that probiotic microorganisms are valuable in the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 Uses the Purines IMP, Inosine and Hypoxanthine and Reduces their Absorption in Rats
Microorganisms 2017, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5010010
Received: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excessive intake of purine-rich foods elevates serum levels of uric acid. Animal and fish meats contain high amounts of inosine and its related purines, and the reduction of taking those purines is crucial for the improvement of serum uric acid levels. We previously [...] Read more.
Excessive intake of purine-rich foods elevates serum levels of uric acid. Animal and fish meats contain high amounts of inosine and its related purines, and the reduction of taking those purines is crucial for the improvement of serum uric acid levels. We previously showed that Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 (PA-3) incorporates adenosine and its related purines and that oral treatment with PA-3 reduced adenosine absorption in rats. This study investigated whether PA-3 also incorporates IMP (inosine 5′-monophosphate), inosine, and hypoxanthine, and whether it reduces their absorption in rats. PA-3 was incubated in vitro with radioisotope (RI)-labeled IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine, and the incorporation of these compounds by PA-3 was evaluated. In addition, rats were orally administered PA-3 along with RI-labeled inosine 5′-monophosphate, inosine, or hypoxanthine, and the ability of PA-3 to attenuate the absorption of these purines was determined. PA-3 incorporated all three purines and displayed greater proliferation in the presence than in the absence of these purines. Oral administration of PA-3 to rats reduced the absorption of IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. These results indicate that PA-3 reduces the absorption of purines contained in foods and it is expected that PA-3 contributes attenuation of the excessive intake of dietary purines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Intestinal Immune Cell Function by Lactic Acid Bacteria for Dairy Products
Microorganisms 2017, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5010001
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a major component of gut microbiota and are often used as probiotics for fermented foods, such as yoghurt. In this study, we aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory activity of LAB, especially that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ME-552 (ME552) and Streptococcus [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) form a major component of gut microbiota and are often used as probiotics for fermented foods, such as yoghurt. In this study, we aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory activity of LAB, especially that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ME-552 (ME552) and Streptococcus thermophilus ME-553 (ME553). In vivo/in vitro assay was performed in order to investigate their effects on T cell function. After oral administration of ME553 to C57BL/6 mice, the amount of both interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 (IL-17) produced by cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ T cells from Peyer’s patches (PPs) were significantly enhanced. On the other hand, ME552 only up-regulated the production of IL-17 from PP cells. The extent of induction for IFN-γ production differed between ME552 and ME553. These results suggest that LAB modulate T cell effector functions and mucosal immunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
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Open AccessArticle Human Lactobacillus Strains from the Intestine can Suppress IgE-Mediated Degranulation of Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3) Cells
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4040040
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor [...] Read more.
Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Additional knowledge regarding the interaction of human intestinal Lactobacilli with mast cells is still necessary. Twenty-three strains of Lactobacilli, including commercial and reference strains and strains from the human intestine, were tested for their ability to regulate degranulation of cells from rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3) in vitro based on a β-hexosaminidase release assay. Each of the tested Lactobacilli characteristically suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, and Lactobacillus GG showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the cells. Furthermore, the bacteria isolated from the human intestine significantly suppressed degranulation of RBL-2H3 cellsin comparison with the reference strains. These results suggest that Lactobacilli, particularly those from the human intestine, can affect the activation of mast cells in a strain-dependent manner. Further study should be conducted to analyse the understanding mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030035
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 10 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased [...] Read more.
Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
Open AccessReview Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030034
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (3158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
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Open AccessReview Immunoregulatory Effects Triggered by Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides: New Insights into Molecular Interactions with Host Cells
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030027
Received: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 10 June 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity [...] Read more.
Researchers have demonstrated that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunomodulatory capabilities (immunobiotics) exert their beneficial effects through several molecules, including cell wall, peptidoglycan, and exopolysaccharides (EPS), that are able to interact with specific host cell receptors. EPS from LAB show a wide heterogeneity in its composition, meaning that biological properties depend on the strain and. therefore, only a part of the mechanism of action has been elucidated for these molecules. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the health-promoting actions of EPS from LAB with special focus on their immunoregulatory actions. In addition, we describe our studies using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (PIE cells) as a model to evaluate the molecular interactions of EPS from two immunobiotic LAB strains and the host cells. Our studies showed that EPS from immunobiotic LAB have anti-inflammatory capacities in PIE cells since they are able to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines in cells challenged with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-agonist lipopolysaccharide. The effects of EPS were dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and negative regulators of TLR signaling. We also reported that the radioprotective 105 (RP105)/MD1 complex, a member of the TLR family, is partially involved in the immunoregulatory effects of the EPS from LAB. Our work described, for the first time, that LAB and their EPS reduce inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells in a RP105/MD1-dependent manner. A continuing challenge for the future is to reveal more effector-receptor relationships in immunobiotic-host interactions that contribute to the beneficial effects of these bacteria on mucosal immune homeostasis. A detailed molecular understanding should lead to a more rational use of immunobiotics in general, and their EPS in particular, as efficient prevention and therapies for specific immune-related disorders in humans and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Microorganisms: An Intimate Gaze)
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