New Advances in Leishnmaniasis

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 11113

Special Issue Editors


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BIOSCOPE Group, LAQV@REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal
Interests: antibiotic resistance; MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; analytical proteomics; biomarker discovery; analytical chemistry; biochemistry
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Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: Leishmaniasis

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are proud to announce a new Special Issue, “New Advances in Leishnmaniasis”, in Microorganisms (MDPI; IF 4.167) devoted to the 2nd International Caparica Conference on Leishmanisis 2020 (2nd Leishmaniasis-2020) (http://www.leishmaniais2020.com/).

Millions of people are currently affected by the parasite Leishmania, and every year, some millions are expected to be infected, with hundreds of deaths occurring daily. Humans’ best friend is also affected by this disease. However, the extension of this disease in dogs is difficult to accurately estimate. Leishmaniasis is a terrible disease that requires quick intervention. It causes open wounds that may not heal on their own. Further, visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if untreated. While this, for humans living in developed countries, is a problem, for people living in emerging countries, it can be a cause of death, and it is indeed a death sentence for abandoned dogs (BA 1st ICC on Leishmanisis 2018).

This Special Issue will select excellent papers as well as review articles from the oral (plenary, keynotes, and regular talks) and selected poster participations and cover a very wide range of fields in studies, treatments, emerging drugs, prevention strategies, and new compounds against canine, feline, human, and/or cutaneous and/or visceral leshmaniasis applications presented in the 2nd International Caparica Conference on Leishmanisis 2020 (2nd Leishmaniasis-2020). We invite all researchers to contribute original research articles or reviews to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Jose Luis Capelo
Prof. Dr. Carlos Lodeiro
Dr. Hugo Miguel Santos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Leihsmanisis
  • Canine
  • Human
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Drug resistance

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2177 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Lutzomyia ayacuchensis Populations with Different Vector Competence to Leishmania Parasites in Ecuador and Peru
by Ahmed Tabbabi, Shinya Watanabe, Daiki Mizushima, Abraham G. Caceres, Eduardo A Gomez, Daisuke S. Yamamoto, Longzhu Cui, Yoshihisa Hashiguchi and Hirotomo Kato
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010068 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Differences in the gut microbial content of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, a primary vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru, may influence the susceptibility of these sand flies to infection by Leishmania. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, [...] Read more.
Differences in the gut microbial content of Lutzomyia (Lu.) ayacuchensis, a primary vector of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru, may influence the susceptibility of these sand flies to infection by Leishmania. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, a comparative analysis of bacterial and fungal compositions from Lu. ayacuchensis populations with differential susceptibilities to Leishmania was performed. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplification and Illumina MiSeq sequencing approaches were used to characterize the bacterial composition in wild-caught populations from the Andean areas of Ecuador and southern Peru at which the sand fly species transmit Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana, respectively, and a population from the northern Peruvian Andes at which the transmission of Leishmania by Lu. ayacuchensis has not been reported. In the present study, 59 genera were identified, 21 of which were widely identified and comprised more than 95% of all bacteria. Of the 21 dominant bacterial genera identified in the sand flies collected, 10 genera had never been detected in field sand flies. The Ecuador and southern Peru populations each comprised individuals of particular genera, while overlap was clearly observed between microbes isolated from different sites, such as the number of soil organisms. Similarly, Corynebacterium and Micrococcus were slightly more dominant bacterial genera in the southern Peru population, while Ochrobactrum was the most frequently isolated from other populations. On the other hand, fungi were only found in the southern Peru population and dominated by the Papiliotrema genus. These results suggest that variation in the insect gut microbiota may be elucidated by the ecological diversity of sand flies in Peru and Ecuador, which may influence susceptibility to Leishmania infection. The present study provides key insights for understanding the role of the microbiota during the course of L. (L.) mexicana and L. (V.) peruviana infections in this important vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Leishnmaniasis)
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12 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
Differentiation of Leishmania (L.) infantum, Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Leishmania (L.) mexicana Using Sequential qPCR Assays and High-Resolution Melt Analysis
by Marcello Ceccarelli, Aurora Diotallevi, Gloria Buffi, Mauro De Santi, Edith A. Fernández-Figueroa, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Said A. Muñoz-Montero, Ingeborg Becker, Mauro Magnani and Luca Galluzzi
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060818 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Leishmania protozoa are the etiological agents of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In specific geographical regions, such as Latin America, several Leishmania species are endemic and simultaneously present; therefore, a diagnostic method for species discrimination is warranted. In this attempt, many qPCR-based assays [...] Read more.
Leishmania protozoa are the etiological agents of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. In specific geographical regions, such as Latin America, several Leishmania species are endemic and simultaneously present; therefore, a diagnostic method for species discrimination is warranted. In this attempt, many qPCR-based assays have been developed. Recently, we have shown that L. (L.) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis can be distinguished through the comparison of the Cq values from two qPCR assays (qPCR-ML and qPCR-ama), designed to amplify kDNA minicircle subclasses more represented in L. (L.) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis, respectively. This paper describes the application of this approach to L. (L.) mexicana and introduces a new qPCR-ITS1 assay followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis to differentiate this species from L. (L.) amazonensis. We show that L. (L.) mexicana can be distinguished from L. (L.) infantum using the same approach we had previously validated for L. (L.) amazonensis. Moreover, it was also possible to reliably discriminate L. (L.) mexicana from L. (L.) amazonensis by using qPCR-ITS1 followed by an HRM analysis. Therefore, a diagnostic algorithm based on sequential qPCR assays coupled with HRM analysis was established to identify/differentiate L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana and Viannia subgenus. These findings update and extend previous data published by our research group, providing an additional diagnostic tool in endemic areas with co-existing species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Leishnmaniasis)
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Review

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31 pages, 4273 KiB  
Review
Natural Products That Target the Arginase in Leishmania Parasites Hold Therapeutic Promise
by Nicola S. Carter, Brendan D. Stamper, Fawzy Elbarbry, Vince Nguyen, Samuel Lopez, Yumena Kawasaki, Reyhaneh Poormohamadian and Sigrid C. Roberts
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020267 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4831
Abstract
Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of devastating and often fatal diseases in humans worldwide. Because a vaccine is not available and the currently small number of existing drugs are less than ideal due to lack of specificity and emerging drug [...] Read more.
Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of devastating and often fatal diseases in humans worldwide. Because a vaccine is not available and the currently small number of existing drugs are less than ideal due to lack of specificity and emerging drug resistance, the need for new therapeutic strategies is urgent. Natural products and their derivatives are being used and explored as therapeutics and interest in developing such products as antileishmanials is high. The enzyme arginase, the first enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway in Leishmania, has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. The flavonols quercetin and fisetin, green tea flavanols such as catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and cinnamic acid derivates such as caffeic acid inhibit the leishmanial enzyme and modulate the host’s immune response toward parasite defense while showing little toxicity to the host. Quercetin, EGCG, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid have proven to be effective against Leishmania in rodent infectivity studies. Here, we review research on these natural products with a focus on their promise for the development of treatment strategies as well as unique structural and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic features of the most promising agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Leishnmaniasis)
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