Special Issue "Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Laurent Poirel

Medical and Molecular Microbiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Science, University of Fribourg, Rue Albert Gockel 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated on “Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms”, which covers all fields related to the identification, epidemiology, and detection of resistance genotypes or phenotypes, both in Gram negatives and Gram positives. In particular, manuscripts dealing with characterization of emerging resistance traits and their genetic backbones will be very welcome, such as those reporting or evaluating detection techniques aimed to facilitate or improve the current diagnostic tools. Additionally, all studies characterizing the mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (accumulation of different resistance traits) will nicely fit with the scope of that special issue. Finally, studies dealing with therapeutical strategies to fight against infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria will also be extremely appreciated.

Dr Laurent Poirel
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Resistance
  • Antibiotics
  • detection techniques
  • epidemiological surveys
  • multidrug
  • genetic transfer
  • plasmid
  • transposon
  • integron

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Insights on the Horizontal Gene Transfer of Carbapenemase Determinants in the Opportunistic Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii
Microorganisms 2016, 4(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4030029
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force to the evolution of bacteria. The fast emergence of antimicrobial resistance reflects the ability of genetic adaptation of pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged in the last few decades as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, in [...] Read more.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a driving force to the evolution of bacteria. The fast emergence of antimicrobial resistance reflects the ability of genetic adaptation of pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged in the last few decades as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen, in part due to its high capacity of acquiring resistance to diverse antibiotic families, including to the so-called last line drugs such as carbapenems. The rampant selective pressure and genetic exchange of resistance genes hinder the effective treatment of resistant infections. A. baumannii uses all the resistance mechanisms to survive against carbapenems but production of carbapenemases are the major mechanism, which may act in synergy with others. A. baumannii appears to use all the mechanisms of gene dissemination. Beyond conjugation, the mostly reported recent studies point to natural transformation, transduction and outer membrane vesicles-mediated transfer as mechanisms that may play a role in carbapenemase determinants spread. Understanding the genetic mobilization of carbapenemase genes is paramount in preventing their dissemination. Here we review the carbapenemases found in A. baumannii and present an overview of the current knowledge of contributions of the various HGT mechanisms to the molecular epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in this relevant opportunistic pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants
Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4010014
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given [...] Read more.
Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria: The Not-So-Little Problem in the Little Red Dot
Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4010013
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Singapore is an international travel and medical hub and faces a genuine threat for import and dissemination of bacteria with broad-spectrum resistance. In this review, we described the current landscape and management of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Singapore. Notably, the [...] Read more.
Singapore is an international travel and medical hub and faces a genuine threat for import and dissemination of bacteria with broad-spectrum resistance. In this review, we described the current landscape and management of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Singapore. Notably, the number of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has exponentially increased in the past two years. Resistance is largely mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Polymyxin resistance has also emerged. Interestingly, two Escherichia coli isolates with plasmid-mediated mcr-1 genes have been detected. Evidently, surveillance and infection control becomes critical in the local setting where resistance is commonly related to plasmid-mediated mechanisms, such as carbapenemases. Combination antibiotic therapy has been proposed as a last-resort strategy in the treatment of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) GNB infections, and is widely adopted in Singapore. The diversity of carbapenemases encountered, however, presents complexities in both carbapenemase detection and the selection of optimal antibiotic combinations. One unique strategy introduced in Singapore is a prospective in vitro combination testing service, which aids physicians in the selection of individualized combinations. The outcome of this treatment strategy has been promising. Unlike countries with a predominant carbapenemase type, Singapore has to adopt management strategies which accounts for diversity in resistance mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent
Microorganisms 2016, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4010012
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 19 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the [...] Read more.
The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys), and in food of animal origin in African countries. In this continent, there is a high diversity of ethnicities, cultures or religions, as well as a high number of wild animal species and close contact between humans and animals, which can have a relevant impact in the epidemiology of this microorganism. This review shows that some clonal lineages associated with humans (CC1, CC15, CC72, CC80, CC101, and CC152) and animals (CC398, CC130 and CC133) are present in this continent in animal isolates, although the mecC gene has not been detected yet. However, available studies are limited to a few countries, very often with incomplete information, and many more studies are necessary to cover a larger number of African countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessReview Tackling Drug Resistant Infection Outbreaks of Global Pandemic Escherichia coli ST131 Using Evolutionary and Epidemiological Genomics
Microorganisms 2015, 3(2), 236-267; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms3020236
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-throughput molecular screening is required to investigate the origin and diffusion of antimicrobial resistance in pathogen outbreaks. The most frequent cause of human infection is Escherichia coli, which is dominated by sequence type 131 (ST131)—a set of rapidly radiating pandemic clones. The [...] Read more.
High-throughput molecular screening is required to investigate the origin and diffusion of antimicrobial resistance in pathogen outbreaks. The most frequent cause of human infection is Escherichia coli, which is dominated by sequence type 131 (ST131)—a set of rapidly radiating pandemic clones. The highly infectious clades of ST131 originated firstly by a mutation enhancing conjugation and adhesion. Secondly, single-nucleotide polymorphisms occurred enabling fluoroquinolone-resistance, which is near-fixed in all ST131. Thirdly, broader resistance through beta-lactamases has been gained and lost frequently, symptomatic of conflicting environmental selective effects. This flexible approach to gene exchange is worrying and supports the proposition that ST131 will develop an even wider range of plasmid and chromosomal elements promoting antimicrobial resistance. To stop ST131, deep genome sequencing is required to understand the origin, evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic methods that decipher past events can predict future patterns of virulence and transmission based on genetic signatures of adaptation and gene exchange. Both the effect of partial antimicrobial exposure and cell dormancy caused by variation in gene expression may accelerate the development of resistance. High-throughput sequencing can decode measurable evolution of cell populations within patients associated with systems-wide changes in gene expression during treatments. A multi-faceted approach can enhance assessment of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli ST131 by examining transmission dynamics between hosts to achieve a goal of pre-empting resistance before it emerges by optimising antimicrobial treatment protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms)
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