Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 13947

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 200 Haemajihean-ro, Gujwa-eup, Jeju-si, Jeju-do 63357, Korea
Interests: membrane technology; environmental (electro-) chemistry; (reverse) electrodialysis; desalination

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Guest Editor
Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 200 Haemajihean-ro, Gujwa-eup, Jeju-si, Jeju-do 63357, Korea
Interests: ion-exchange membrane; fouling on membrane; patterned membranes

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 51140, Korea
Interests: ion-exchange membranes; reverse electrodialysis; electrochemical desalination; flow-electrode; capacitive mixing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Salinity gradient power (SGP) is an emerging renewable energy source with great energy potential, low power fluctuation, and environmental friendliness. Based on the several benefits of SGP, many research groups have tried to commercialize SGP under natural conditions and with the desalination process. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is an electrochemical process that generates electrical power by developing membrane potential by selective ion transport through the ion-exchange membrane and generating electrical current with redox reactions. Therefore, ion-exchange membranes have a significant role in improving the power density, energy efficiency, and lifetime of RED. Despite the successful development of ion-exchange membranes at a commercial level in recent decades, critical issues have remained regarding the maintenance (e.g., anti-fouling and chemical stability), life-cycle assessment, economical and environmental fabrication, and innovative applications in various fields. The ultimate goal of studying the ion-exchange membrane for RED is to further promote RED technology towards sustainable development and carbon emission reduction.

This Special issue is devoted to “Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis”. Authors are invited to submit their contributions in the forms of research articles, technical reports, case studies, and critical reviews. Relevant topics include the following:

  • Fouling characterization and anti-fouling strategies;
  • Improving chemical stability;
  • Fabrication of new ion-exchange membranes (chemically or mechanically);
  • Cost-effective production methods and life-cycle assessment of ion-exchange membrane;
  • Innovative applications of RED (e.g., hybrid system).

Dr. Hanki Kim
Dr. Ji-Yeon Choi
Prof. Dr. Seung-Cheol Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Ion-exchange membrane;
  • Reverse electrodialysis;
  • Fouling characterization;
  • Chemical stability;
  • Cost-effective and environmental fabrication;
  • Life-cycle assessment.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1215 KiB  
Article
Development of an Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device to Increase Electrolyte Concentrations to Biomedical Devices
by Efecan Pakkaner, Jessica L. Orton, Caroline G. Campbell, Jamie A. Hestekin and Christa N. Hestekin
Membranes 2022, 12(10), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12100990 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Emerging technologies in nanotechnology and biomedical engineering have led to an increase in the use of implantable biomedical devices. These devices are currently battery powered which often means they must be surgically replaced during a patient’s lifetime. Therefore, there is an important need [...] Read more.
Emerging technologies in nanotechnology and biomedical engineering have led to an increase in the use of implantable biomedical devices. These devices are currently battery powered which often means they must be surgically replaced during a patient’s lifetime. Therefore, there is an important need for a power source that could provide continuous, stable power over a prolonged time. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) based biopower cells have been previously used to generate continuous power from physiologically relevant fluids; however, the low salinity gradient that exists within the body limited the performance of the biopower cell. In this study, a miniaturized RED biopower cell design coupled with a salt cartridge was evaluated for boosting the salt concentration gradient supplied to RED in situ. For the salt cartridge, polysulfone (PSf) hollow fibers were prepared in-house and saturated with NaCl solutions to deliver salt and thereby enhance the concentration gradient. The effect of operational parameters including solution flow rate and cartridge salt concentration on salt transport performance was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the use of the salt cartridge was able to increase the salt concentration of the RED inlet stream by 74% which in turn generated a 3-fold increase in the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the biopower cell. This innovative adaptation of the membrane-based approach into portable power generation could help open new pathways in various biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis)
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17 pages, 7078 KiB  
Article
Pilot-Scale Test Results of Electrodialysis Bipolar Membrane for Reverse-Osmosis Concentrate Recovery
by Leyla Gazigil, Eren Er, O. Erdem Kestioğlu and Taner Yonar
Membranes 2022, 12(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12010083 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
In this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of electrodialysis bipolar membrane (EDBM) systems for the recovery of the concentrate originating from an organized industrial estate (OIE) wastewater treatment system with reverse osmosis (RO). Acids and bases were obtained from a [...] Read more.
In this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of electrodialysis bipolar membrane (EDBM) systems for the recovery of the concentrate originating from an organized industrial estate (OIE) wastewater treatment system with reverse osmosis (RO). Acids and bases were obtained from a pilot-scale treatment plant as a result of the research. Furthermore, the sustainability and affordability of acids and bases obtained by EDBM systems were investigated. Six cycles were carried out in continuous-flow mode with the EDBM system as batch cycles in the disposal of the concentrate and the production of acids and bases with the EDBM system. For each cycle, the EDBM system was operated for 66, 48, 66, and 80 min, respectively, and the last two cycles were operated for a total of 165 min (70 + 90) with 5 min of waiting. In the EDBM system, a working method was determined such that the cycle flow rate was 180 L/hour, energy to be given to the system was 25 V, and the working pressure was in the range of 0.8–2.5 bar. In the six cycles with the EDBM system, the concentrate, acid and base, conductivity, pH, and pressure increase values were investigated depending on time. Throughout all these studies, the cycles were continued over the products formed in the acid and base chamber. As a result of all the cycles, acid (HCl) production at a level of 1.44% and base (NaOH) production at a level of 2% were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis)
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11 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Renewable Power Generation by Reverse Electrodialysis Using an Ion Exchange Membrane
by Sourayon Chanda and Peichun Amy Tsai
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110830 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising technology to extract sustainable salinity gradient energy. However, the RED technology has not reached its full potential due to membrane efficiency and fouling and the complex interplay between ionic flows and fluidic configurations. We investigate renewable power [...] Read more.
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising technology to extract sustainable salinity gradient energy. However, the RED technology has not reached its full potential due to membrane efficiency and fouling and the complex interplay between ionic flows and fluidic configurations. We investigate renewable power generation by harnessing salinity gradient energy during reverse electrodialysis using a lab-scaled fluidic cell, consisting of two reservoirs separated by a nanoporous ion exchange membrane, under various flow rates (qf) and salt-concentration difference (Δc). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the single RED unit reveals a linear dependence, similar to an electrochemical cell. The experimental results show that the change of inflow velocity has an insignificant impact on the I-V data for a wide range of flow rates explored (0.01–1 mL/min), corresponding to a low-Peclet number regime. Both the maximum RED power density (Pc,m) and open-circuit voltage (ϕ0) increase with increasing Δc. On the one hand, the RED cell’s internal resistance (Rc) empirically reveals a power-law dependence of RcΔcα. On the other hand, the open-circuit voltage shows a logarithmic relationship of ϕ0=BlnΔc+β. These experimental results are consistent with those by a nonlinear numerical simulation considering a single charged nanochannel, suggesting that parallelization of charged nano-capillaries might be a good upscaling model for a nanoporous membrane for RED applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis)
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17 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
Correlations between Properties of Pore-Filling Ion Exchange Membranes and Performance of a Reverse Electrodialysis Stack for High Power Density
by Hanki Kim, Jiyeon Choi, Namjo Jeong, Yeon-Gil Jung, Haeun Kim, Donghyun Kim and SeungCheol Yang
Membranes 2021, 11(8), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080609 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
The reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack-harnessing salinity gradient power mainly consists of ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Among the various types of IEMs used in RED stacks, pore-filling ion exchange membranes (PIEMs) have been considered promising IEMs to improve the power density of RED stacks. [...] Read more.
The reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack-harnessing salinity gradient power mainly consists of ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Among the various types of IEMs used in RED stacks, pore-filling ion exchange membranes (PIEMs) have been considered promising IEMs to improve the power density of RED stacks. The compositions of PIEMs affect the electrical resistance and permselectivity of PIEMs; however, their effect on the performance of large RED stacks have not yet been considered. In this study, PIEMs of various compositions with respect to the RED stack were adopted to evaluate the performance of the RED stack according to stack size (electrode area: 5 × 5 cm2 vs. 15 × 15 cm2). By increasing the stack size, the gross power per membrane area decreased despite the increase in gross power on a single RED stack. The electrical resistance of the PIEMs was the most important factor for enhancing the power production of the RED stack. Moreover, power production was less sensitive to permselectivities over 90%. By increasing the RED stack size, the contributions of non-ohmic resistances were significantly increased. Thus, we determined that reducing the salinity gradients across PIEMs by ion transport increased the non-ohmic resistance of large RED stacks. These results will aid in designing pilot-scale RED stacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis)
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Review

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33 pages, 939 KiB  
Review
Heat to Hydrogen by RED—Reviewing Membranes and Salts for the RED Heat Engine Concept
by Pauline Zimmermann, Simon Birger Byremo Solberg, Önder Tekinalp, Jacob Joseph Lamb, Øivind Wilhelmsen, Liyuan Deng and Odne Stokke Burheim
Membranes 2022, 12(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12010048 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
The Reverse electrodialysis heat engine (REDHE) combines a reverse electrodialysis stack for power generation with a thermal regeneration unit to restore the concentration difference of the salt solutions. Current approaches for converting low-temperature waste heat to electricity with REDHE have not yielded conversion [...] Read more.
The Reverse electrodialysis heat engine (REDHE) combines a reverse electrodialysis stack for power generation with a thermal regeneration unit to restore the concentration difference of the salt solutions. Current approaches for converting low-temperature waste heat to electricity with REDHE have not yielded conversion efficiencies and profits that would allow for the industrialization of the technology. This review explores the concept of Heat-to-Hydrogen with REDHEs and maps crucial developments toward industrialization. We discuss current advances in membrane development that are vital for the breakthrough of the RED Heat Engine. In addition, the choice of salt is a crucial factor that has not received enough attention in the field. Based on ion properties relevant for both the transport through IEMs and the feasibility for regeneration, we pinpoint the most promising salts for use in REDHE, which we find to be KNO3, LiNO3, LiBr and LiCl. To further validate these results and compare the system performance with different salts, there is a demand for a comprehensive thermodynamic model of the REDHE that considers all its units. Guided by such a model, experimental studies can be designed to utilize the most favorable process conditions (e.g., salt solutions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis)
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