Archaeological Landscape and Settlement

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X). This special issue belongs to the section "Landscape Archaeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (8 January 2023) | Viewed by 37253

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Guest Editor
Department of Asian and North African Studies, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, 30123 Venezia, Italy
Interests: landscape archaeology; prehistoric archaeology; shell middens; Indus Valley; high-altitude archaeology; lithic mining; hunter-gatherers; early farmers
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Guest Editor
Department of Civilizations and Forms of Knowledge, University of Pisa, 56128 Pisa, Italy
Interests: landscape archaeology; prehistoric archaeology; neolithization of Europe; raw material procurement and use; archaeometry of ceramics and stone artefacts; prehistory of the Indus Valley
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The goal of this Special Issue is to set up a series of papers regarding different approaches to landscape archaeology, independent of the geographic location and chronology of the sites involved. It is well known that human impacts have had dramatic effects on landscapes, which can be interpreted thanks to well-defined archaeological methods. In most cases, environmental changes were caused by activities carried out by groups of human beings due to subsistence economy reasons, in other cases to acquire different types of raw materials, among which are knappable stones and metals. Other landscape changes are often consequent to complex economic and trade activities. Environmental changes due to climate variations led people move to territories that were more suitable for settling. Moreover, the coastal changes consequent to global sea-level rise which took place at the end of the Pleistocene led to the submersion of wide regions, most of which are now lost to archaeology, or their investigation is very technically difficult. The improvement of radiocarbon dating techniques in recent decades has played an important role in the chronological definition of the periods during which different cultural aspects developed, weakened, and later disappeared. Another important topic regards the exploitation of highland zones. When and why did people start to explore extreme mountain environments? What kinds of activities did they practice there? These are some of the topics this Special Issue on Landscape and Settlement is expected to investigate.

Prof. Dr. Paolo Biagi
Dr. Elisabetta Starnini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • human impact on the landscape
  • coastal changes and sea-level rise
  • settlement patterns and sites complementarity
  • radiocarbon dating
  • the exploitation of the highland zones
  • mining raw material sources
  • stone and metal

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 14958 KiB  
Article
Archaeology of the Landscape of Metalworking Sites in Italian Alpine Areas (Orobic Alps) between the Middle Ages and the Modern Era
by Paolo de Vingo
Land 2023, 12(5), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12051031 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
The article introduces features of iron-working in the north-western Italian Alpine region (specifically, the Valtellina side of the Bergamesque or Orobic Alps) during the Middle Ages by comparing historical data and archaeological sources. This will help shed light on the organisation of the [...] Read more.
The article introduces features of iron-working in the north-western Italian Alpine region (specifically, the Valtellina side of the Bergamesque or Orobic Alps) during the Middle Ages by comparing historical data and archaeological sources. This will help shed light on the organisation of the production process, starting from iron ore mining, proceeding to examine the transformation phases and culminating in the conversion of the ore into ingots or bars to produce tools for agricultural or wood-cutting activities. The article follows two distinct paths, initially presenting the main stages of iron-working in Valtellina until the second half of the eighteenth century, followed by an analysis of the mining complex of Val Venina where an extremely important metal-working site is situated. Two separate mining zones were identified, the first deep underground and the second an opencast working site. Furthermore, a series of rooms made of dry-stone walling that provided accommodation for the miners have been brought to light, as well as mineral deposits and stables for the animals required to carry out the activities described by Melchiorre Gioia in his volume “Statistica del Dipartimento dell’Adda” and indicated in the land registers of the Lombardy-Veneto regions carried out in 1815 and 1863. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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14 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
New Absolute Chronological Constraints to La Playa (Sonoran Desert) Archaeology between the American Southwest and Mesoamerica—From Long Period Human Resilience to Apparent Abandonment
by Avto Goguitchaichvili, Elisa Villapando, Alejandra Abrego, Rubén Cejudo, Vadim Kravchinsky, Francisco Bautista, Karla Flores García, Juan Morales and Miguel Cervantes
Land 2023, 12(3), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12030560 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Sonoran Desert archaeological settlement is one of the most representative sites in Northwestern Mexico/Southwestern United States of the Early Agriculture period because of various cultural processes involved, such as the introduction of the first cultigens and the construction of Pit Houses. These early [...] Read more.
Sonoran Desert archaeological settlement is one of the most representative sites in Northwestern Mexico/Southwestern United States of the Early Agriculture period because of various cultural processes involved, such as the introduction of the first cultigens and the construction of Pit Houses. These early desert village settlements used geomorphological features of the local landscape to facilitate their sophisticated form of agriculture. Most of the features and artifacts at the site are associated with the Early Agricultural period of 3150-1900 cal B.P., while most occupation dates are in the Cienega phase (2800-1900 cal B.P.). Later stages are poorly documented because of the apparent reduction in population, less marked archaeological features, and extreme erosion processes. Systematic archaeological excavation revealed evidence of completely burned Pit Houses. We analyzed 56 samples belonging to four Pit Houses and one different combustion feature (Kiln or Horno, as they are locally known) in different areas of the settlement. The experimental procedure included continuous susceptibility vs. temperature measurements and step-wise alternating field demagnetizations. Only 36 samples yielded technically acceptable determinations that allowed the determination of archaeomagnetic directions. Statistically indistinguishable results were obtained from all five studied features. This finding reinforces archaeological evidence of ritual-related paraphernalia and/or apparent abandonment or, at least, migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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26 pages, 17608 KiB  
Article
The Soils of Early Farmers and Their Neighbors in the Southern Buh Catchment (Ukraine): Micromorphology and Archaeological Context
by Dmytro Kiosak and Zhanna Matviishyna
Land 2023, 12(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020388 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1537
Abstract
The problems regarding hunter-gatherer/early farmer interactions are quite an important topic in southeast European archaeology. According to the available data, the two economic subsistence systems have coexisted for some 2000 years during the 6th–4th millennia cal BC (Telegin 1985; Lillie et al., 2001). [...] Read more.
The problems regarding hunter-gatherer/early farmer interactions are quite an important topic in southeast European archaeology. According to the available data, the two economic subsistence systems have coexisted for some 2000 years during the 6th–4th millennia cal BC (Telegin 1985; Lillie et al., 2001). In some areas, hunter-gatherer and early farmer sites are located just a few kilometers apart. The Southern Buh River valley has yielded evidence of Linear Pottery culture, early Trypillia and Trypillia B1 Neolithic settlements as well as hunter-gatherer sites with pottery attributable to the so-called sub-Neolithic or para-Neolithic (Haskevych et al., 2019; Kiosak et al., 2021). Trial-trenches have been opened within some of these sites, which have been radiocarbon-dated from Bern University laboratory (LARA). Soil samples for micromorphological analysis have been collected from these sites to interpret their paleogenetic formation. The soil development is attested since, at least, the beginning of the 5th mill BC, followed by the developed of chernozem soils, which was interrupted by an erosional episode in the end of 5th millennium BC. The available data show that the soils of early farmers arable as are the present day ones. The early farmers were able to exploit relatively heavy soils to cultivate wheat and barley as early as 5250–5050 cal BC. In contrast, the sites of ceramic hunter-gatherers were often located on the soils which formed under wet conditions along seasonally flooded riverbanks, which were almost unsuitable for agricultural practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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42 pages, 21052 KiB  
Article
Mountain Landscape and Human Settlement in the Pindus Range: The Samarina Highland Zones of Western Macedonia, Greece
by Paolo Biagi, Elisabetta Starnini, Nikos Efstratiou, Renato Nisbet, Philip D. Hughes and Jamie C. Woodward
Land 2023, 12(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010096 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6192
Abstract
Past human mountain settlement patterns and resource and high-altitude landscape exploitation are underexplored research fields in archaeology. This study presents data gathered during more than 20 years of fieldwork in the Pindus range of Western Macedonia (Greece), focusing in particular on Holocene land [...] Read more.
Past human mountain settlement patterns and resource and high-altitude landscape exploitation are underexplored research fields in archaeology. This study presents data gathered during more than 20 years of fieldwork in the Pindus range of Western Macedonia (Greece), focusing in particular on Holocene land use. The investigated territory is located around the Vlach town of Samarina. The area is partly bounded by Mounts Vasilitsa, Gurguliu, Bogdani and Anitsa, and their interconnecting watersheds between ca. 1400 and 2000 m a.s.l. This research led to the discovery of many sites and findspots of lithic and ceramic artefacts attributed to the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and several Historical periods. The radiocarbon results show an unexpected longue durée of Holocene human landscape use. The number of sites, their distribution, location, and subsistence strategies exhibit shifts between the Middle Palaeolithic and different periods of the Holocene, which are closely related to the exploitation of the mountain environment and its resources. Moreover, typical knapped stone artefacts have been used as a proxy for dating the glacial landforms which characterise the Samarina highland zone; we correlate them to the better-known moraine systems of Mount Tymphi in Epirus and contribute to the reconstruction of the Pleistocene glacial landscapes of the Pindus Range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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23 pages, 7822 KiB  
Article
The Becoming of a Prehistoric Landscape: Palaeolithic Occupations and Geomorphological Processes at Lojanik (Serbia)
by Camille Lesage, Alvise Barbieri, Jovan Galfi, Dragan Jovanović and Vera Bogosavljević Petrović
Land 2022, 11(12), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122292 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Accomplishing long-term plans to harvest and modify natural resources has been a crucial skill for the survival of our species since early Prehistory. Research on this first step of production mostly focuses on the provenience study of lithic artifacts uncovered at archaeological sites, [...] Read more.
Accomplishing long-term plans to harvest and modify natural resources has been a crucial skill for the survival of our species since early Prehistory. Research on this first step of production mostly focuses on the provenience study of lithic artifacts uncovered at archaeological sites, using petrographic and geochemical analyses to correlate the artifacts with potential geological outcrops. Although fundamental for understanding key aspects of landscape use and mobility, regional raw material economy, and extraction technology, Palaeolithic raw material sources have been less intensively investigated, as they are often difficult to locate and challenging to tackle with traditional archaeological approaches. Lojanik in the Central Balkans is one of the largest Prehistoric quarrying areas known in Europe, showing numerous lithic raw material outcrops exploited from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Chalcolithic periods, over an area of 18 hectares. In this paper, we present the results from our renewed research program in this region. Combining airborne LIDAR mapping, geomorphological and archaeological survey, and techno-typological analysis of lithic artifacts, we were able to reconstruct the geomorphological evolution of the landscape and its use by prehistoric societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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16 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Depopulation of the Northern Border of Mesoamerica during the Early Postclassic: Evidence from the Reappraisal of Archaeomagnetic Data
by Alejandra García Pimentel, Avto Goguitchaichvili, Carlos Torreblanca, Vadim Kravchinsky, Miguel Cervantes, Rafael García, Rubén Cejudo, Francisco Bautista and Juan Morales
Land 2022, 11(12), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122103 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
The Mesoamerican Postclassic and Epiclassic were periods of drastic change and transformation related to social, political and economic aspects as well as settlement patterns. Mexico’s northern boundary expansion, rise, and subsequent demise is a matter of debate which remains essentially unsolved. Possible causes [...] Read more.
The Mesoamerican Postclassic and Epiclassic were periods of drastic change and transformation related to social, political and economic aspects as well as settlement patterns. Mexico’s northern boundary expansion, rise, and subsequent demise is a matter of debate which remains essentially unsolved. Possible causes include climatic changes, landscape degradation or prolonged bellicose relations with nomadic groups. Still, no consensus exists on why such apparent instability and decline occurred at major archaeological settlements on the northern Mesoamerican border, also known as the septentrional frontier. The scarcity of absolute chronological constraints is definitively a handicap that impedes the assessment of northern Mesoamerica’s development from its apogee to its decline. The archaeomagnetic method has been used during the last decades to analyze burned archaeological artifacts belonging to Mesoamerica’s north and central-west frontiers, including different Mexican states. Namely, high-resolution studies were carried out at Aguascalientes (El Ocote), Guanajuato (El Cóporo, Lo de Juárez and Plazuelas), Jalisco (Cerro de Los Agaves, La Palma and El Palacio de Ocomo) and Zacatecas (La Quemada). It was successfully proved that archaeomagnetic dating might greatly contribute to refining the chronology and development of major pre-Hispanic settlements. These studies were based on available geomagnetic curves at the time of publication. However, global geomagnetic models have experienced substantial improvement with the development of local/regional reference archaeomagnetic curves during the last few years. Hence, the need arises for a critical reassessment of reported age intervals and corresponding chronological contexts. Updated archaeomagnetic ages are recalculated considering the geomagnetic models SHA.DIF.14K and SHAWQ.2K as well as the two regional paleosecular variation curves for Mesoamerica. A bootstrap resampling method is used to obtain an optimal age range for each studied structure. These new absolute chronologies indicate that the last fire exposure of the vast majority of the analyzed artifacts unequivocally corresponds to the Mesoamerican early Postclassic related to the depopulation stage apparently caused by environmental changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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17 pages, 6723 KiB  
Article
Archaeomagnetic Dating of Three Furnaces inside the Middle Age Settlement of San Genesio (San Miniato, Pisa, Italy)
by Claudia Principe, Avto Goguitchaichvili, Marina Devidze, Sonia La Felice, Ruben Cejudo, Juan Morales and Federico Cantini
Land 2022, 11(11), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11111936 - 30 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Archaeomagnetic dating using full geomagnetic vector was performed on three furnaces cropping out at San Genesio archaeological zone, an ancient settlement located in the Arno River plain, near San Miniato (Pisa). The first evidence of human presence in this area dates back to [...] Read more.
Archaeomagnetic dating using full geomagnetic vector was performed on three furnaces cropping out at San Genesio archaeological zone, an ancient settlement located in the Arno River plain, near San Miniato (Pisa). The first evidence of human presence in this area dates back to the period between the VI century BCE and 1248 CE, when the village of San Genesio was destroyed by the inhabitants of the nearby castle of San Miniato. Three burned structures were located at different stratigraphic levels. The SGEN01 represents a kiln to produce pottery. The SGEN02 is probably a furnace for domestic use, while the SGEN03 is interpreted as a metallurgic kiln due to the presence of some hematite fragments possibly coming from Elba Island. Both mean paleodirections and absolute intensity were compared with the global geomagnetic model SCHA.DIF4K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2021) for Europe. The obtained age intervals at the 65% probability are 846-911 CE for SGEN01, 696-799 CE for SGEN02, and 623-644 CE for SGEN03. These new absolute dates agree well with their archaeological/stratigraphic position and with the history of the archaeological place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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18 pages, 5522 KiB  
Article
Historical Landscape Elements of Abandoned Foothill Villages—A Case Study of the Historical Territory of Moravia and Silesia
by Hana Vavrouchová, Antonín Vaishar and Veronika Peřinková
Land 2022, 11(10), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101809 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
During the second half of the 20th century, a number of settlements disappeared for various reasons, especially in the hilly landscapes of northern Moravia and in the Czech part of Silesia. Currently, in the relevant localities, it is possible to identify preserved original [...] Read more.
During the second half of the 20th century, a number of settlements disappeared for various reasons, especially in the hilly landscapes of northern Moravia and in the Czech part of Silesia. Currently, in the relevant localities, it is possible to identify preserved original landscape structures (scattered greenery, water elements, original woody plants, terraces, etc.) and other historical landscape elements with heritage potential. The typical elements of the above-mentioned localities of abandoned settlements are agrarian stone walls that document previous agricultural land use. These structures are generally located outside the original building plots on the edges of previously farmed land. Another important historical element is the unused access roads to arable land, which are still visible in lidar pictures. Numerous elements of the extinct settlements also include the remains of building materials and local quarries of building stone. This paper presents and classifies the historical landscape elements and their typology and proposes a methodology for identification and documentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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18 pages, 5789 KiB  
Article
Using Interdisciplinary Techniques for Digital Reconstruction of Anti-Turkish Fortification Watchtower
by Rok Kamnik, Saša Djura Jelenko, Matjaž Perc Nekrep and Marko Jaušovec
Land 2022, 11(10), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101756 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Modern heritage protection goes beyond the mere protection of individual buildings and objects. Modern technologies and techniques of field data capture and visual (3D) presentations are increasingly penetrating this field and are becoming more and more essential and necessary for archives, cadastres, and [...] Read more.
Modern heritage protection goes beyond the mere protection of individual buildings and objects. Modern technologies and techniques of field data capture and visual (3D) presentations are increasingly penetrating this field and are becoming more and more essential and necessary for archives, cadastres, and users and visitors of museums, exhibitions, collections, and archaeological parks. In the area between Kotlje and Ravne na Koroškem, Slovenia, in 1476–1477, 9 to 10 anti-Turkish fortifications, called Turške Šance, reportedly were erected. The remains were left to decay slowly. This paper highlights the possibility of applying interdisciplinary data capture and 3D visualization techniques that are used in the fields of civil engineering and architecture for digital reconstruction of the anti-Turkish fortification as a case study in order to present them in the most contemporary way and emphasize them on a local, regional, national, and international level. Unfortunately, similar remains elsewhere in Europe are primarily ignored (with some notable exceptions). The digital reconstruction of anti-Turkish watchtowers therefore represented an extended reconstruction to revive that part of the historical heritage of Slovenia using the proposed techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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21 pages, 13570 KiB  
Article
Kiukainen Culture Site Locations—Reflections from the Coastal Lifestyle at the End of the Stone Age
by Janne Soisalo and Johanna Roiha
Land 2022, 11(9), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091606 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
The Kiukainen culture constitutes a poorly known phase at the end of the Stone Age in Finland, approximately 2500–1800 cal. BC. It is best known for its pottery, and most of the finds are from the coastal area of the Baltic Sea between [...] Read more.
The Kiukainen culture constitutes a poorly known phase at the end of the Stone Age in Finland, approximately 2500–1800 cal. BC. It is best known for its pottery, and most of the finds are from the coastal area of the Baltic Sea between Helsinki and Ostrobothnia. Previous research on the culture was done several decades ago, so this study aims to define the geographical distribution of the sites known thus far and discuss the landscape around the settlement sites. Creating an overall view of the culture and lifestyle of the people is also an important part of the study. First, it focuses on different collections of Kiukainen pottery and then maps the location of all the sites where pottery has been found. For the landscape visualizations, three different areas were chosen for closer evaluation. Elevation models were, then, used to visualize the Stone Age coastal landscape. Altogether, we identified 99 settlement sites with a confirmed connection to Kiukainen culture. One common feature of the locations is a connection to the sea. The sites are located in various types of environments, but they all have easy access to seafaring and good landing possibilities from the sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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27 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
Between Plain and Plateau: Micro-Transitions in Zooarchaeological Landscapes in the Guanzhong Region of Northwest China
by Marcella Festa and Francesca Monteith
Land 2022, 11(8), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11081269 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Transitions in animal exploitation patterns are caused by topographical and climatic variations on both macro and micro scales. This paper presents temporally and spatially contextualized faunal profiles from 27 sites in the Guanzhong (关中) region of Shaanxi province (陕西省), PRC which date from [...] Read more.
Transitions in animal exploitation patterns are caused by topographical and climatic variations on both macro and micro scales. This paper presents temporally and spatially contextualized faunal profiles from 27 sites in the Guanzhong (关中) region of Shaanxi province (陕西省), PRC which date from the Early Neolithic to the Bronze Age (ca. 6000–1000 BCE). Climatic and environmental data was cross-referenced with archaeological, archaeobotanical and (where appropriate) historical sources to examine the reasons for the clear micro-transitions observed. Faunal profiles from sites in the Wei River plain (渭河盆地), loess plateau, and the transitional zone between them were analyzed. Animal utilization was found to vary substantially between different zones during the period under analysis. The transition in praxis between the Wei River valley and the loess plateau was not gradual. The hilly transition zone was found to have its own distinct animal exploitation pattern. These spatio-temporal differences in animal exploitation were caused by changes in both the local microclimates and the topography of the landscape in which the communities were living. Some regions apparently reverted to ‘earlier’ animal exploitation patterns in response to climatic changes. These environmental factors were also augmented by internal social developments and interactions with neighboring communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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15 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
The Spatiotemporal Patterns of Human Settlement during the Longshan and Erlitou Periods in Relation to Extreme Floods and Subsistence Strategy in the Upper and Middle Qin River Reaches, Central China
by Wenhua Gao, Hainan Hu, Weidong Hou, Pengjia Zhang, Panpan Gong, Wenyan Jia, Xiaoli Liu and Kaifeng Li
Land 2022, 11(7), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071088 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Human settlement numbers have significantly changed before and after ~4000 cal. y BP in the upper and middle Qin River reaches, but the external and internal factors driving this change remain unclear. In this study, we examine changing spatial and temporal patterns of [...] Read more.
Human settlement numbers have significantly changed before and after ~4000 cal. y BP in the upper and middle Qin River reaches, but the external and internal factors driving this change remain unclear. In this study, we examine changing spatial and temporal patterns of the Longshan and Erlitou settlements in relation to extreme flooding at ~4000 cal. y BP and a variety of subsistence strategies during the Longshan and Erlitou periods. The results indicate that settlement number, settlement distribution, and subsistence strategies exhibited obvious shifts between the Longshan and Erlitou periods, and the episode at ~4000 cal. y BP was an extreme-flood-rich interval within and around the Qin River Basin. During the Longshan and Erlitou periods, millet-based agriculture dominated local subsistence strategy, and ancient people would prefer to reside in the areas suitable for farming, causing the valley plains in the upper and middle Qin River reaches to contain most Longshan and Erlitou settlements. However, the frequent occurrence of extreme floods at ~4000 cal. y BP, in conjunction with intergroup conflicts due to a large amount of population immigration during the late Longshan period, is likely to have jointly decreased the settlement number and shrunk the spatial range of human settlement distribution. Subsequently, with the end of the extreme-flood-rich episode and the increasing proportion of higher-water-requirement foxtail millet in cropping structures of human subsistence strategy, more Erlitou settlements were distributed in the wetter valley plains of the middle Qin River reaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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24 pages, 6682 KiB  
Article
Ancient Agricultural and Pastoral Landscapes on the South Side of Lake Issyk-Kul: Long-Term Diachronic Analysis of Changing Patterns of Land Use, Climate Change, and Ritual Use in the Juuku and Kizil Suu Valleys
by Claudia Chang, Sergei S. Ivanov, Perry A. Tourtellotte, Robert N. Spengler III, Basira Mir-Makhamad and David Kramar
Land 2022, 11(6), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060902 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
The main goal of this paper is to present results of preliminary archaeological research on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. We test the hypothesis that agropastoral land use changed over four millennia from the Bronze Age through the Kirghiz period [...] Read more.
The main goal of this paper is to present results of preliminary archaeological research on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. We test the hypothesis that agropastoral land use changed over four millennia from the Bronze Age through the Kirghiz period due to economic, socio-political, and religious shifts in the prehistoric and historic societies of this region. Our research objectives are to: (1) describe and analyze survey results from the Lower Kizil Suu Valley; (2) discuss the results of radiometric and archaeobotanical samples taken from three stratigraphic profiles at three settlements from the Juuku Valley, including the chronological periods of the Wusun (140 to 437 CE), the Qarakhanid (942 to 1228 CE), and the historic Kirghiz (1700 to present CE); and (3) conduct preliminary GIS spatial analyses on the Iron Age mortuary remains (Saka and Wusun periods). This research emerges out of the first archaeological surveys conducted in 2019–2021 and includes the Lower Kizil Suu alluvial fan; it is an initial step toward developing a model for agropastoral land use for upland valleys of the Inner Tian Shan Mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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16 pages, 5364 KiB  
Article
The Transformation of Indigenous Landscape in the First Colonized Region of the Caribbean
by Eduardo Herrera Malatesta
Land 2022, 11(4), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040509 - 31 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2498
Abstract
This paper presents an archaeological reconstruction of indigenous landscape transformations in the first colonized region of the Caribbean. The arrival of Columbus in 1492 in the northern region of the island of Haytí (the current Dominican Republic and Haiti) signified a profound change [...] Read more.
This paper presents an archaeological reconstruction of indigenous landscape transformations in the first colonized region of the Caribbean. The arrival of Columbus in 1492 in the northern region of the island of Haytí (the current Dominican Republic and Haiti) signified a profound change in the lives of the island’s communities, transforming their everyday actions and their perceptions of landscape. To address this complex topic, this research tackled a key problem in landscape archaeology: while the “landscape” concept has been extensively debated, there is a growing tendency to use the concept without clear definitions and to obscure important methodological aspects of how scholars bridge the divide between their conceptual definitions and the archaeological record. This paper approaches this problem by applying the concepts of ‘sites as tendencies’ and ‘contested taskscapes’. This theoretical and methodological framework allows for the reconstruction of the indigenous landscape and, more importantly, highlights how the colonization process impacted the everyday tasks and perceptions of Hayti’s indigenous people through the profound transformation of their landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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21 pages, 9503 KiB  
Article
Landscape and Settlement over 4 Millennia on the South Side of Lake Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan: Preliminary Results of Survey Research in 2019–2021
by Claudia Chang, Sergei S. Ivanov and Perry A. Tourtellotte
Land 2022, 11(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040456 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
This paper discusses the preliminary results of archaeological surveys conducted in the Juuku Region of north-central Kyrgyzstan on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul. Our goal was to document ancient and contemporary agropastoral systems over a four-millennia period. During the surveys, about 350 [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the preliminary results of archaeological surveys conducted in the Juuku Region of north-central Kyrgyzstan on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul. Our goal was to document ancient and contemporary agropastoral systems over a four-millennia period. During the surveys, about 350 loci were identified as settlements, burial mounds, graves, single artifact finds, and artifact scatters (ceramic). The areas of Juuku Valley surveyed included two discrete polygons: Polygon 1, Lower Juuku at 1750 to 1950 m asl in elevation and Polygon 2, Chak Juuku or Upper Eastern Branch Juuku Valley at 2060 to 2100 m asl in elevation. Three radiometric dates and preliminary archaeobotanical studies were conducted at three exposed profile cuts. The methods included here are: (1) pedestrian surveys; (2) use of digital maps (Google Earth, Nakarte); (3) placing archaeological loci within known chronological time periods; (4) AMS dating of charcoal samples collected from profile deposits; and (5) preliminary identification of plant remains found from archaeobotanical samples. The results of our research represent the first step toward inventorying and interpreting archaeological data in the Juuku Valley derived from field studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological Landscape and Settlement)
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