Special Issue "Infra-Gravity Waves and Vessel Response"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Charitha Pattiaratchi

Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG), Oceans Graduate School & The UWA Oceans Institute, M470, Perth WA 6009, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61864883179
Fax: (618) 6488 1015
Interests: coastal oceanography; mixing and circulation; physical processes; coastal observations; numerical modeling; sediment transport; remote sensing, estuaries; nearshore processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infra-gravity waves (sometimes called long waves), which are defined by the wave period, from 25 to 300 s (or sometimes 600 s), have been reported as one of the causes of oscillation problems in many ports and harbours. In a harbour with lengths of the order of 500 m and depths of the order of 10 m, the natural oscillation periods are of the order of a few minutes and coincide with the infragravity waves with typical periods of 25 to 300 s.  When the periods of incident infragravity waves approach the harbour’s natural oscillation period or periods, strong oscillations in the harbour basin can be generated in the infragravity band, through resonance.  This results in water level fluctuations and strong horizontal currents within the harbour.  In such conditions, if the harbour oscillation periods coincide with natural period of moored vessels, harbour operations can be interrupted due to undesirable vessel movements. This situation further causes damage to mooring lines and fenders, resulting in harbour downtimes followed by significant economic losses.

The main harbour basin at Geraldton Port in Western Australia is frequently impacted by long period waves resulting in excessive ship movements and high mooring loads, including line breakages, and berth unavailability at all seven berths due to long wave surge.

Geraldton Port Authority conducted a symposium aimed at reviewing and assessing Infra-gravity problem with a view to being able to ameliorate the incidence of long waves and/or improve the ability of moored ships to withstand their impact. The Symposium was conducted with invited participants following an international selection process. One requirement of the Technical Papers was for a focus on at least one cost effective solution to Geraldton’s issue within each paper.

This Special Issue is launched to provide a forum for the outcomes of the symposium and a compilation of current state of the art and future perspectives in addressing the long-wave problem in harbours and ports.

Prof. Charitha Pattiaratchi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • infra-gravity waves
  • harbour oscillations
  • suspended, bedload and total load
  • field observations
  • numerical simulation and prediction
  • mooring aspects

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Port Simulation Modelling and Economic Assessment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010016
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ports exposed to high energy long wave conditions can experience significantly reduced berth availability, leading to loss of throughput. The Port of Geraldton, located in Western Australia, is an example of such a port. A range of alternatives to mitigate the long wave [...] Read more.
Ports exposed to high energy long wave conditions can experience significantly reduced berth availability, leading to loss of throughput. The Port of Geraldton, located in Western Australia, is an example of such a port. A range of alternatives to mitigate the long wave energy problem at this port have been examined, but each varies significantly in terms of both operational benefit and economic impact. The most technically effective solution may not necessarily yield the largest economic return. In this paper, a discrete event simulation model of port operations is used to assess the cost and benefits of various long wave mitigation approaches. The results showed that mooring configurations involving the use of port-supplied nylon breast lines held under high pre-tension by means of brake winches on the wharf appear to provide among the most favourable economic return for the Port of Geraldton. More effective ship response performance can be achieved through use of pneumatic fenders and shore-based constant tension winches, but at higher cost and slightly less favourable economics. Extending the existing port breakwater provided the least economic return due to its high cost and limited impact on berth long wave energy in the appropriate frequency range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infra-Gravity Waves and Vessel Response)
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Open AccessArticle
Extended Long Wave Hindcast inside Port Solutions to Minimize Resonance
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010009
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study shows a methodology to carry out a comprehensive study of port agitation and resonance analysis in Geraldton Harbor (Western Australia). The methodology described and applied here extends the short and long wave hindcast outside the harbor and towards the main [...] Read more.
The present study shows a methodology to carry out a comprehensive study of port agitation and resonance analysis in Geraldton Harbor (Western Australia). The methodology described and applied here extends the short and long wave hindcast outside the harbor and towards the main basin. To perform such an analysis, and as the first stage of the methodology, it is necessary to determine, in detail, both the long and short wave characteristics, through a comprehensive methodology to obtain and to hindcast the full spectral data (short waves + long waves, for frequencies between 0.005 and 1 Hz). Twelve-year spectral hindcast wave data, at a location before the reef, have been modified analytically to include the energy input associated with infragravity waves. A decomposition technique based on the energy balance of the radiation stress of short waves is followed. Predictions for long wave heights and periods at different harbor locations are predicted and validated with data recorded during 2004 to 2009. This new database will ensure an accurate and reliable assessment of long wave hourly data (height, period and currents) in any area within the main basin of the Port of Geraldton, for its present geometry. With this information, two main task will be completed: (1) undertake a forensic diagnosis of the present response of the harbor, identifying those forcing characteristics related to inoperability events; and (2) propose any layout solutions to minimize, change, dissipate/fade/vanish or positively modify the effects of long waves in the harbor, proposing different harbor geometry modifications. The goal is to identify all possible combinations of solutions that would minimize the current inoperability in the harbor. Different pre-designs are assessed in this preliminary study in order to exemplify the potential of the methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infra-Gravity Waves and Vessel Response)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Mooring Configurations in Geraldton Harbour
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010003
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ports exposed to high energy long wave conditions can experience significantly reduced berth operability. Geraldton is perhaps one of the best known examples. Recent studies to mitigate the problems have concentrated on the reduction of the long waves by extending the breakwater. However, [...] Read more.
Ports exposed to high energy long wave conditions can experience significantly reduced berth operability. Geraldton is perhaps one of the best known examples. Recent studies to mitigate the problems have concentrated on the reduction of the long waves by extending the breakwater. However, this is quite costly. Various countermeasures related to the mooring configuration are defined and analysed in this paper. The analysed alternatives are use of shore-based mooring lines, installation of softer fenders, a combination of these two, and deployment of Cavotec MoorMaster™ units. These alternatives were compared with the existing mooring configuration and with the option to extend the breakwater. The best improvement (50% increase of threshold long wave height inside the harbour) is reached by installing a combination of pneumatic fenders and constant tension winches set to 30 t, or nylon breast lines on a brake winch with a pretension of 25 t. In this way, the vessel is pulled into the fenders and fender friction prevents excessive surging of the ship along the berth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infra-Gravity Waves and Vessel Response)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Review of Long Wave Dynamics over Reefs and into Ports with Implication for Port Operations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010012
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 17 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the dynamics of infragravity (long-period) waves over reef systems and the consequences of these waves for operations in ports located behind reefs with particular attention to Western Australia. Swells which originate in the Southern Ocean generate long (infragravity) waves, which [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the dynamics of infragravity (long-period) waves over reef systems and the consequences of these waves for operations in ports located behind reefs with particular attention to Western Australia. Swells which originate in the Southern Ocean generate long (infragravity) waves, which propagate to the coast. On the reef edge, the swell waves are largely dissipated, transferring energy to turbulence and heat but also in that process generating long wave energy. The remaining swell waves are dominated by the infragravity waves and propagate towards the mainland and into port basins where they cause moored ship motions with consequences for the operational downtime of the port’s operations. When contemplating solutions to mitigate the impact of the long wave problems, these may be addressed from two sides: from the load side (waves) and the strength side (mooring). The former will be discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infra-Gravity Waves and Vessel Response)
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