Special Issue "Marine Mineral Resource Mining"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mehdi Ostadhassan

Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, United States
Website | E-Mail
Interests: material characterization, petroleum system evaluation, organic geochemistry, force spectroscopy, analytical methods in rock characterization, application of 3D printing in geosciences, rock mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks produces petroleum and bitumen when undergoes thermal maturation. Solid OM is a ‘geomacromolecule’, representing a mixture of various organisms with distinct biogenic origins: terrestrial, marine, lacustrine or mixed also known as kerogen type. Solid OM can be very heterogeneous regarding chemical composition in a single particle. Programmed pyrolysis is a common method to reveal bulk geochemical characteristics of the dominant organic matter while detailed organic petrography is required to reveal biogenic origin of contributing macerals. Despite advantages of pyrolysis, it misses the heterogeneity of chemical compositions in the individual OM which varies with maturity. Therefore, other analytical techniques such as Raman, GC-MS and infrared spectroscopy, are necessary to elevate our understanding from individual organic particle in smaller scale. This becomes more important in shale plays where source and reservoir are adjacent to reveal migration pathways. The focus of this special issue is to compare various analytical techniques on different source rocks that can provide insight to petroleum system evaluation of unconventional shale plays. This special issue is aiming to signify the potential of alternative methods to the conventional (pseudo) Van Krevelen diagram, by revealing the underlying chemical changes in source rocks during thermal advance.

Dr. Mehdi Ostadhassan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Kerogen 
  • Solid Bitumen 
  • Infrared Spectroscopy 
  • Raman Spectroscopy 
  • Programmed Pyrolysis 
  • Organic Petrography 
  • Source Rock 
  • Unconventional Shale Plays 
  • Petroleum System

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Development of Upwelling during the Sedimentary Period of the Organic-Rich Shales in the Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations of the Upper Yangtze Region and Its Impact on Organic Matter Enrichment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7040099
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
This study uses logging data, mineral component content, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and microscopic characteristics of the organic-rich shales in the Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations, as well as data reported by other researchers, to demonstrate that upwelling has played an important role [...] Read more.
This study uses logging data, mineral component content, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and microscopic characteristics of the organic-rich shales in the Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations, as well as data reported by other researchers, to demonstrate that upwelling has played an important role in the organic matter enrichment. The results show that (1) the organic-rich shales of Well N211 in the Upper Yangtze region are located in the Wufeng Formation and the lower Longmaxi Formation, with a burial depth between 2308–2357 m. (2) The organic-rich shales are enriched in biogenic silica. (3) Based on paleogeographic location and characteristics of organisms, this study determines that upwelling occurred during the deposition of the organic-rich shales in the Wufeng and Longmaxi Formations, promoting the enrichment of organic matter in the shales. (4) The upwelling intensity gradually increased from the sedimentary period of the organic-rich shales in the mid-lower Wufeng Formation to the sedimentary period of the Guanyinqiao Member, and then decreased gradually from the sedimentary period of the Guanyinqiao Member to the sedimentary period of the organic-rich shales in the Longmaxi Formation, and leads to the different enrichment of organic matter in the vertical direction. The different developments of upwelling led to the coexistence of both high and low TOC contents in the Guanyinqiao Member along the vertical direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mineral Resource Mining)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the Fractal Method to the Characterization of Organic Heterogeneities in Shales and Exploration Evaluation of Shale Oil
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7040088
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
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Abstract
The first member of the Qingshankou Formation, in the Gulong Sag in the northern part of the Songliao Basin, has become an important target for unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. The organic-rich shale within this formation not only provides favorable hydrocarbon source rocks for conventional [...] Read more.
The first member of the Qingshankou Formation, in the Gulong Sag in the northern part of the Songliao Basin, has become an important target for unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. The organic-rich shale within this formation not only provides favorable hydrocarbon source rocks for conventional reservoirs, but also has excellent potential for shale oil exploration due to its thickness, abundant organic matter, the overall mature oil generation state, high hydrocarbon retention, and commonly existing overpressure. Geochemical analyses of the total organic carbon content (TOC) and rock pyrolysis evaluation (Rock-Eval) have allowed for the quantitative evaluation of the organic matter in the shale. However, the organic matter exhibits a highly heterogeneous spatial distribution and its magnitude varies even at the millimeter scale. In addition, quantification of the TOC distribution is significant to the evaluation of shale reservoirs and the estimation of shale oil resources. In this study, well log data was calibrated using the measured TOC of core samples collected from 11 boreholes in the study area; the continuous TOC distribution within the target zone was obtained using the △logR method; the organic heterogeneity of the shale was characterized using multiple fractal models, including the box-counting dimension (Bd), the power law, and the Hurst exponent models. According to the fractal dimension (D) calculation, the vertical distribution of the TOC was extremely homogeneous. The power law calculation indicates that the vertical distribution of the TOC in the first member of the Qingshankou Formation is multi-fractal and highly heterogeneous. The Hurst exponent varies between 0.23 and 0.49. The lower values indicate higher continuity and enrichment of organic matter, while the higher values suggest a more heterogeneous organic matter distribution. Using the average TOC, coefficient of variation (CV), Bd, D, inflection point, and the Hurst exponent as independent variables, the interpolation prediction method was used to evaluate the exploration potential of the study area. The results indicate that the areas containing boreholes B, C, D, F, and I in the western part of the Gulong Sag are the most promising potential exploration areas. In conclusion, the findings of this study are of significant value in predicting favorable exploration zones for unconventional reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Mineral Resource Mining)
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