Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 34481

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Marine Science, CASEM, Rio San Pedro s/n, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Spain
Interests: reef-supported beaches; sediment transportation; coastal engineering; coastal management; littoral dunes; sand characteristics; sinking phenomenon
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hydraulics, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/ Profesor Aranguren, s/n, 28071 Madrid, Spain
Interests: perched beaches; borrow site investigation; beach nourishment; integrated coastal zone management; beach monitoring; ocean instrumentation and forecasting; operational oceanography; submarine groundwater discharges

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Erosion is experienced by most of the coastlines worldwide, and it is usually attributed not only to sea level rise but also to the retention of sand in dams, the occupation of dry beaches by urbanized areas, the mining of sand as a building material for construction, and so on. Beach nourishment has evolved as the favoured erosion-mitigation strategy in many areas of the world. The increasing number of people living on the coast, the safety of those people, and the high values of coastal property are all factors that have made beach nourishment a cost-effective strategy for managing erosion in many locations; however, a new scenario of sand scarcity and environmental care has arisen in recent decades. There have been a lot of different and interesting cases of various aspects of beach nourishment in the last years. The purpose of this invited Special Issue is to publish the most exciting experience and research with respect to this topic. Thus, novel techniques for designing, executing, and controlling these kinds of works are welcome. Different case studies and their monitoring results and conclusions are also encouraged, in order to present an updated state of the art for marine scientists, researchers, and engineers. As usual in JMSE, a rapid turn-around time regarding reviewing and publishing will be provided. Moreover, dissemination of the articles will be free for research, teaching, and reference purposes.

High-quality papers are encouraged for publication that are directly related to the following topics:

Beach nourishment design techniques;

Borrow site investigation and environmental-friendly dredging techniques;

Quarry-sand beaches and gravel beach design;

Working with nature; 

Representative and unique case studies;

Monitoring results and beach evolution;

The control of qualitative characteristics of the sand;

The cost of renourishment and beach management;

Groins and other structures for sand contention/retention, including innovative methods/technologies;

Beach monitoring—advanced methods;

Beach erosion evaluation.

Dr. Juan J. Munoz-Perez
Dr. Luis Moreno
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal engineering
  • Coastal management
  • Sand nourishment design
  • Sand dredging.

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

4 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review
by Luis J. Moreno and Juan J. Muñoz-Perez
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050499 - 5 May 2021
Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Long-term erosion is experienced by most of the coastlines worldwide, and it is usually attributed not only to sea level rise but also to the retention of sand in dams, the occupation of dry beaches by urbanized areas, the disturbance of the natural [...] Read more.
Long-term erosion is experienced by most of the coastlines worldwide, and it is usually attributed not only to sea level rise but also to the retention of sand in dams, the occupation of dry beaches by urbanized areas, the disturbance of the natural patterns of longshore drift, the mining of sand as building material for construction, and so on [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

15 pages, 47276 KiB  
Article
Beach Leveling Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS): Problems and Solutions
by Francisco Contreras-de-Villar, Francisco J. García, Juan J. Muñoz-Perez, Antonio Contreras-de-Villar, Veronica Ruiz-Ortiz, Patricia Lopez, Santiago Garcia-López and Bismarck Jigena
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010019 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
The size and great dynamism of coastal systems require faster and more automated mapping methods like the use of a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This method allows for shorter intervals between surveys. The main problem for surveying [...] Read more.
The size and great dynamism of coastal systems require faster and more automated mapping methods like the use of a remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This method allows for shorter intervals between surveys. The main problem for surveying using low-altitude digital photogrammetry in beach areas is their visual homogeneity. Obviously, the fewer the homologous points defined by the program, the lower the accuracy. Moreover, some factors influence the error performed in photogrammetric techniques, such as flight height, flight time, percentage of frame overlap (side and forward), and the number of ground control points (GCPs). A total of 72 different cases were conducted varying these factors, and the results were analyzed. Among the conclusions, it should be highlighted that the error for noon flights is almost double that for the early morning flights. Secondly, there is no appreciable difference regarding the side overlap. But, on the other side, RMSE increased to three times (from 0.05 to 0.15 m) when forward overlap decreased from 85% to 70%. Moreover, relative accuracy is 0.05% of the flying height which means a significant increase in error (66%) between flights performed at 60 and 100 m height). Furthermore, the median of the error for noon flights (0.12 m) is almost double that for the early morning flights (0.07 m) because of the higher percentage of grids with data for early flights. Therefore, beach levelings must never be performed at noon when carried out by RPAS. Eventually, a new parameter has been considered: the relationship between the number of GCPs and the surface to be monitored. A minimum value of 7 GCP/Ha should be taken into account when designing a beach leveling campaign using RPAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3691 KiB  
Article
Multidata Study to Evaluate the Impact of Submarine Outfall in a Beach Sedimentary Dynamic: The Case of Samil Beach (Galicia, Spain)
by Aimar Lersundi-Kanpistegi, Ana M. Bernabeu, Daniel Rey and Rafael Díaz
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060461 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
The Ria de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) is one of the most impacted coastal areas of Galicia, due to demographic and industrial pressure. One of the main consequences of this pressure is the need to extend the current wastewater treatment plant of the [...] Read more.
The Ria de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) is one of the most impacted coastal areas of Galicia, due to demographic and industrial pressure. One of the main consequences of this pressure is the need to extend the current wastewater treatment plant of the city of Vigo (295,000 inhabitants). This extension includes a new submerged pipeline construction to discharge the treated water in the central channel of the Ria. The new planned pipeline must cross Samil Beach, the most important urban beach of the city. Based on a multitool strategy, this work characterizes the interactions between the new pipeline route alternatives and the sediment dynamics of Samil Beach. This approximation improves the reliability of the results in the subtidal area of the beach, where studies are scarce due to the complexity of the data acquisition. The present study is based on high resolution bathymetry data, seabed physical characterization, a granulometric study of the superficial sediment, and a numerical simulation of the tide, wave climate, and sediment transport in low and high energy conditions using open source Delft3D software. The results showed that the area of interest is a low energy area, which is significantly shielded from wave attack, where fine sand predominates. However, the field data indicated an interaction (accretion-erosion) in the submerged obstacles between 0 and 12 m deep. The model revealed that there is significant sediment movement above a 7.4 m isobath, and that the pipeline would not alter the general transport dynamics of the beach, but would interact in the shallowest section. The main conclusion of this work states that the future structure would not alter the global sediment dynamics of the beach. In addition, in order to guarantee the safety of the new pipeline, it should emerge above an 8 m isobath. The multiapproach methodology presented can be applied to other studies of the interaction between coastal structures and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9949 KiB  
Article
How Effective Were the Beach Nourishments at Cancun?
by Raúl Martell, Edgar Mendoza, Ismael Mariño-Tapia, Itxaso Odériz and Rodolfo Silva
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060388 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4213
Abstract
Beach nourishment is generally seen as the preferred means of rectifying coastal erosion, due to its low environmental impact and natural evolution. The largest beach nourishment project ever carried out in Mexico took place on Cancun beach in 2006, as a response to [...] Read more.
Beach nourishment is generally seen as the preferred means of rectifying coastal erosion, due to its low environmental impact and natural evolution. The largest beach nourishment project ever carried out in Mexico took place on Cancun beach in 2006, as a response to the most intense hurricane season ever registered in Mexico, in 2005. After Hurricane Dean, in 2009, a second nourishment was conducted, which evidenced flaws in the design and execution of the first project. Previous investigations report that the need for beach re-fills directly correlates with wave energy. However, following a thorough revision of the extreme climatic events that occurred between 1978 and 2018, it has been found that the amount of erosion also depends on the frequency and duration of high energy events. The findings also show that the apparent success of the second nourishment is mainly associated with a decline in the number of extreme wave power events impacting the beach. In the conclusion to this paper, we share the knowledge gained, but not yet applied, in Mexico or elsewhere, regarding beach use, urbanization, and protection in beach planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Beach Nourishment Methodology and Performance at Two Fringing Reef Beaches in Waikiki (Hawaii, USA) and Cadiz (SW Spain)
by Juan J. Muñoz-Perez, Shari L. Gallop and Luis J. Moreno
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040266 - 9 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3355
Abstract
Fringing reefs have significant impacts on beach dynamics, yet there is little research on how they should be considered in beach nourishment design, monitoring, and conservation works. Thus, the behavior and characteristics of nourishment projects at two reef protected beaches, Royal Hawaiian Beach [...] Read more.
Fringing reefs have significant impacts on beach dynamics, yet there is little research on how they should be considered in beach nourishment design, monitoring, and conservation works. Thus, the behavior and characteristics of nourishment projects at two reef protected beaches, Royal Hawaiian Beach (RHB) in Hawaii, USA, and Victoria Beach (VB) in Cadiz, Spain, are compared to provide transferable information for future nourishment projects and monitoring in fringing reef environments. The nourishment cost at RHB was nine times higher than VB. This is partly due to lower total volume and a more complex placement and spreading method at RHB, despite the much closer borrow site at RHB. There was a significant difference in post-nourishment monitoring frequency and assessment of accuracy. RHB elevation was monitored quarterly for 2.7 years at 30 m-spaced profiles, compared to 5 years of biannual surveys of 50 m-spacing at VB. An additional problem related to the presence of reefs at both RHB and VB was estimating the beach volume increase after nourishment, due to variable definitions of the ‘beach’ area and high alongshore variability in reef topography. At sites where non-native sediment is used, it is imperative to understand how wave and current energy changes due to reefs will influence nourishment longevity. Thus, differences in erosion and accretion mechanisms at both beaches have been detected, though are still little understood. Moreover, discrepancies in sediment porosity between the two sites (which should be surveyed in future nourishments) have been found, probably due to differences in the nourishment sand transportation and distribution methods. In summary, more dialogue is needed to explicitly consider the influence of fringing reefs on coastal processes and beach nourishment projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8915 KiB  
Article
Micro Sand Engine Beach Stabilization Strategy at Puerto Morelos, Mexico
by Mireille Escudero, Edgar Mendoza and Rodolfo Silva
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040247 - 2 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
In the last decade, innovative beach nourishment strategies have been developed, driven by the increased worldwide interest in environmentally friendly coastal protection measures. In this context, the massive nourishment project of the Netherlands, known as Sand Engine, begun in 2011, has been hailed [...] Read more.
In the last decade, innovative beach nourishment strategies have been developed, driven by the increased worldwide interest in environmentally friendly coastal protection measures. In this context, the massive nourishment project of the Netherlands, known as Sand Engine, begun in 2011, has been hailed as a successful means of beach protection. Continuous monitoring, field campaigns, and numerical modeling have shown that the great volume of sand deployed is gradually transported by the waves and currents along the coastline, avoiding the need for repeated invasive, small scale beach replenishments. A very small, bell-shaped Sand Engine was designed to protect the beachfront at a tourist resort near Puerto Morelos, Mexico. To estimate the morphological response of the beach and the functioning of the micro Sand Engine as a sand reservoir, XBeach numerical modelling was applied to the project. The micro Sand Engine is seen to be a sustainable and eco-friendly coastal protection measure, especially applicable when a large nourishment project is not viable. Maintenance work for the nourishment is cost and time effective, and any negative impacts to sensitive ecosystems nearby can be detected and controlled quickly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5273 KiB  
Article
Communicating Simulation Outputs of Mesoscale Coastal Evolution to Specialist and Non-Specialist Audiences
by Andres Payo, Jon R. French, James Sutherland, Michael A. Ellis and Michael Walkden
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040235 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3269
Abstract
Coastal geomorphologists and engineers worldwide are increasingly facing the non-trivial challenge of visualising and communicating mesoscale modelling assumptions, uncertainties and outcomes to both coastal specialists and decision-makers. Visualisation of simulation outcomes is a non-trivial problem because the more abstract scientific visualisation techniques favoured [...] Read more.
Coastal geomorphologists and engineers worldwide are increasingly facing the non-trivial challenge of visualising and communicating mesoscale modelling assumptions, uncertainties and outcomes to both coastal specialists and decision-makers. Visualisation of simulation outcomes is a non-trivial problem because the more abstract scientific visualisation techniques favoured by specialists for data exploration and hypothesis-testing are not always as successful at engaging decision-makers and planners. In this paper, we show how the risk of simulation model outcomes becoming disconnected from more realistic visualisations of model outcomes can be minimised by using the Coastal Modelling Environment (CoastalME). CoastalME is a modelling framework for coastal mesoscale morphological modelling that can achieve close linkages between the scientific model abstractions, in the form of lines, areas and volumes, and the 3D representation of topographic and bathymetric surfaces and shallow sub-surface sediment composition. We propose and illustrate through the study case of Happisburgh (eastern England, UK), a transparent methodology to merge the required variety of data types and formats into a 3D-thickness model that is used to initialise a simulation. We conclude by highlighting some of the barriers to the adoption of the methodology proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 8655 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Coastal Sediment Management Plan: The Example of the Tuscany Region (Italy)
by Enzo Pranzini, Irene Cinelli, Luigi E. Cipriani and Giorgio Anfuso
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010033 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4379
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study carried out to support the Region of Tuscany Coastal Sediment Management Plan, with the main aim of establishing the sediment budget considering the time span from 1981–1985 to 2005 for the 56 coastal sectors into [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a study carried out to support the Region of Tuscany Coastal Sediment Management Plan, with the main aim of establishing the sediment budget considering the time span from 1981–1985 to 2005 for the 56 coastal sectors into which the 215 km-long continental sandy coast of Tuscany (Italy) was divided. The sand stability (according to a stability index) and colour compatibility (according to the CIEL*a*b* colour space with an acceptability range conforming to national guidelines) were determined in order to assess the possibility of using the available sediment in accreting sectors to nourish the beach in eroding areas. Only in two cases—i.e., the updrift of a harbour (at Viareggio) and in a convergence zone (at Marina di Pietrasanta)—are the volumes of sufficient magnitude to support a large nourishment project; however, the mean sand size is too small to guarantee efficient nourishment, even with medium-term stability. In contrast, the colour difference, in most of the cases, was shown to be acceptable. Other small sediment stocks, suitable for colour but not for grain size, can be used for periodic ephemeral nourishment works to support seasonal tourist activities. The limited resources available make it necessary to adopt a plan for their optimal use from a regional perspective. This kind of study is of great interest for the proposal of sound management actions to counteract the increasing erosion processes linked to climate change phenomena and human effects on rivers and coastal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 5340 KiB  
Technical Note
A New Method for the Collection of Marine Geomagnetic Information: Survey Application in the Colombian Caribbean
by Karem Oviedo Prada, Bismarck Jigena Antelo, Nathalia Otálora Murillo, Jeanette Romero Cózar, Francisco Contreras-de-Villar and Juan José Muñoz-Pérez
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010010 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2856
Abstract
In recent years, the Oceanographic and Hydrographic Research Center (part of the General Maritime Directorate of Colombia (DIMAR) has made important efforts to advance research in the field of marine geophysics, in particular, the techniques of geomagnetism, sub-bottom profiling, and side-scan sonar, the [...] Read more.
In recent years, the Oceanographic and Hydrographic Research Center (part of the General Maritime Directorate of Colombia (DIMAR) has made important efforts to advance research in the field of marine geophysics, in particular, the techniques of geomagnetism, sub-bottom profiling, and side-scan sonar, the first being the most developed at the present time. A method is presented for the acquisition of geomagnetic data in marine environments, as used by DIMAR in the Colombian maritime territory. The development of the geomagnetic method not only offers the opportunity to advance basic scientific knowledge, but it is also of great importance in support of national sovereignty issues. Among other applications, the most representative uses of the geomagnetic method are the location of pipelines and metal plates, detection of buried ordnance, identification of sites of archaeological interest, and the identification and characterization of geological structures. As a result of testing the method, a grid of geomagnetic data was surveyed in an area close to the Island of San Andrés in the north-west of the Colombian maritime territory. The survey was prepared with a regional geometric arrangement, the result of which was compared with survey data obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) magnetic data repository and carried out in the same study area. Despite the long time interval between the two surveys, almost 50 years, no significant differences were observed in terms of the analyzed variables. Finally, results show negligible differences between the magnetic data obtained for the years 1970 and 2018 for all the variables measured, such as the inclination, declination, and total magnetic field. These differences may be attributable to a geological component or also to the acquisition and processing methods used in the 1970s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3649 KiB  
Case Report
Effects of Repeated Sand Replenishment Projects on Runs of a Beach-Spawning Fish, the California Grunion
by Karen L. M. Martin and Loni C. Adams
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030178 - 6 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4807
Abstract
Beach habitats are diminishing globally, particularly in urban areas, as sea-level rise, erosion, and shoreline hardening, along with reduced sediment inputs, combine to squeeze the coast. In California, USA an endemic marine fish, the California grunion, spawns on sandy beaches during late-night spring [...] Read more.
Beach habitats are diminishing globally, particularly in urban areas, as sea-level rise, erosion, and shoreline hardening, along with reduced sediment inputs, combine to squeeze the coast. In California, USA an endemic marine fish, the California grunion, spawns on sandy beaches during late-night spring tides. Its unique recreational fishery is managed by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. The City of Oceanside, CA contracts for annual harbor dredging and, after testing, places the sandy sediment on its public beach. The effects on local beach wildlife from this annual sand replenishment are not known. We examined the effect of this repeated activity as a case study over three years on the spawning runs of the California grunion. Some spawning runs occurred in all three years, but the fish avoided areas with high scarps in the intertidal zone that developed following sand placement activity. Grunion spawning runs have declined in the habitat range as a whole over the past two decades, and those in Oceanside have declined to an even greater extent. Increasing sandy beach habitat can be beneficial to wildlife, but the method of placement, timing of the project, and fate of the beach afterward can modulate or prevent beneficial effects. Frequent repetition of sand placement may accumulate impacts without allowing sufficient time for the ecosystem to recover. Rather than improving the habitat, these repeated projects in Oceanside may degrade the spawning habitat for the grunion. Alternative discharge methods and locations, slope and elevation designs, sediment volumes, and greater care in beach fill practices should be implemented to reduce future impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beach Nourishment: A 21st Century Review)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop