Effects of Repeated Sand Replenishment Projects on Runs of a Beach-Spawning Fish, the California Grunion
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Effects on Sand Habitat
3.2. Grunion Spawning Observations
- Beaches are ecosystems. Beach replenishment projects done for human purposes of harbor dredging have ecosystem effects that are not fully understood and may be negative rather than positive for the ecology. Projects should take care to avoid or minimize disturbing critical habitats during reproductive seasons. Ideally, beach fill in Oceanside and other California beaches should be completed by the end of March to avoid the peak grunion spawning months of April, May and June.
- The addition of new substrate should be done gradually. The beach should build up slowly over time, allowing for a more natural beach face with a gradual slope rather than a steep scarp. Then, even if high wave events occur, a steep scarp is less likely to form or will have a lower elevation allowing for waves and tides to break down the scarp naturally.
- Dredge sediments must continue to ensure a grain size similar to the natural sandy beach baseline conditions, in order to provide an appropriate slope of the beach face and suitable habitat for local biota.
- Frequent repetition of sand placement and harbor dredging may accumulate impacts by not allowing sufficient time for the ecosystem to recover before additional disturbance occurs. Rather than improving habitat, these repeated projects in Oceanside may actually be degrading the spawning habitat for grunion, both at the project site and neighboring beaches. Project impacts from 2017 lingered through the grunion season of 2018, even though the 2018 project itself started after grunion spawning season.
- Alternative discharge methods, attention to slope and elevation designs, smaller sediment volumes, less impactful locations for placement, and greater care in beach fill practices should be implemented to reduce future impacts.
Conflicts of Interest
- Leonard, L.; Dixon, K.; Pilkey, O. A comparison of beach replenishment on the U.S. atlantic, pacific and gulf coasts. J. Coast. Res. 1990, 6, 127–140. [Google Scholar]
- Pilkey, O.H., Jr.; Cooper, J.A.G. The Last Beach; Duke University Press: Durham, NC, USA, 2014; p. 256. [Google Scholar]
- Lawrenz-Miller, S. Grunion spawning versus beach nourishment: Nursery or burial ground? Coast. Zone 1991, 3, 2197–2208. [Google Scholar]
- Peterson, C.H.; Hickerson, D.H.M.; Johnson, G.G. Short-term consequences of nourishment and bulldozing on the dominant large invertebrates of a sandy beach. J. Coast. Res. 2000, 16, 368–378. [Google Scholar]
- Peterson, C.H.; Bishop, M.J. Assessing the environmental impacts of beach nourishment. Bioscience 2005, 55, 887–896. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rosov, B.; Bush, S.; Roberts Briggs, T.; Elko, N. The state of understanding the impacts of beach nourishment activities on infaunal communities. Shore Beach 2016, 84, 51–55. [Google Scholar]
- Herrera, A.; Gomez-Pina, G.; Fages, L.; Casa, A.; Muñoz-Perez, J.J. Environmental impact of beach nourishment: A case study of the rio san pedro beach (SW Spain). Open Oceanogr. J. 2010, 4, 32–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Viola, S.; Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M.; Schooler, N.K. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2014, 150, 142–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peterson, C.H.; Bishop, M.J.; D’Anna, L.M.; Johnson, G.A. Multi-year persistence of beach habitat degradation from nourishment using coarse shelly sediments. Sci. Total Environ. 2014, 487, 481–492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mason, T.; Coates, T.T. Sediment transport processes on mixed beaches: A review for shoreline management. J. Coast. Res. 2001, 2001, 645–657. [Google Scholar]
- Muñoz-Perez, J.J.; Medina, R. Profile changes due to a fortnightly tidal cycle. Coast. Eng. 2001, 2000, 3052–3075. [Google Scholar]
- Peterson, C.H.; Bishop, M.J.; Johnson, G.A.; D’Anna, L.M.; Manning, L. Exploiting beach filling as an unaffordable experiment: Benthic intertidal impacts propagating up to shorebirds. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 2006, 338, 205–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M.; Quigley, B. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating dynamic ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems. Geomorphology 2013, 199, 95–105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- King, P.G.; Nelsen, C.; Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M.; Martin, K.L. Valuing beach ecosystems in an age of retreat. Shore Beach 2018, 86, 1–15. [Google Scholar]
- Gregory, P.A. Grunion. In California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report; Leet, W.S., Dewees, C.M., Klingbeill, R., Larson, E.J., Eds.; California Department of Fish and Game: Sacramento, CA, USA, 2001; pp. 246–247. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.L.M. Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem; Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press: Oxford, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Walker, B.W. A guide to the grunion. Calif. Fish Game 1952, 38, 409–420. [Google Scholar]
- Sandrozinski, A. California grunion. In Status of the Fisheries Report, an Update through 2011; California Department of Fish & Wildlife: Sacramento, CA, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Robbins, E. Essential Fish Habitat in Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and San Diego Bay: A Reference Guide for Managers. Master’s Thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, June 2006; p. 129. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.L.M.; Hieb, K.A.; Roberts, D.A. A southern California icon surfs north: Local ecotype of California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis (Atherinopsidae) revealed by multiple approaches during temporary habitat expansion into San Francisco bay. Copeia 2013, 2013, 729–730. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Available online: Https://visitoceanside.org/?s=grunion (accessed on 28 October 2019).
- Defeo, O.; McLachlan, A.; Schoeman, D.S.; Schlacher, T.A.; Dugan, J.; Jones, A.; Lastra, M.; Scapini, F. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2009, 81, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martin, K.L.M.; Moravek, C.L.; Martin, A.D.; Martin, R.D. Community based monitoring improves management of essential fish habitat for beach-spawning California Grunion. In Sandy Beaches and Coastal Zone Management: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Sandy Beaches, Rabat, Morocco, 19th–23rd October 2009; Travaux de l’ Institut Scientifique: Rabat, Morocco, 2011; pp. 65–72. [Google Scholar]
- Rich, C.; Longcore, T. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Jones, A.; Knapp, H.; Peacock, A.; Wakamatsu, L.; Holt, B. Southern California Water Resources II: Predicting Grunion Migration Patterns and Spawning Areas in Responses to Changes in California’s Oceans; Develop Technical Report; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Atmospheric and Space Administration: Pasadena, CA, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.L.M.; Pierce, E.A.; Quach, V.V.; Studer, M. Population trends of beach-spawning California grunion Leuresthes tenuis monitored by citizen scientists. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 2019, 76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Byrne, R.; Bernardi, G.; Avise, J. Spatiotemporal genetic structure in a protected marine fish, the California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis), and relatedness in the genus Leuresthes. J. Hered. 2013, 104, 521–531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kuhn, G.G.; Shepherd, F.P. Sea Cliffs, Beaches, and Coastal Valleys of San Diego County: Some Amazing Histories and Some Horrifying Implications; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 1984. [Google Scholar]
- McLachlan, A.; Brown, A.C. The Ecology of Sandy Shores, 2nd ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.L.M.; Raim, J.G. Avian predators target beach spawning marine fish, California Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 2014, 113, 187–199. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.; Speer-Blank, T.; Pommerening, R.; Flannery, J.; Carpenter, K. Does beach grooming harm grunion eggs? Shore Beach 2006, 74, 17–22. [Google Scholar]
- Martin, K.; Staines, A.; Studer, M.; Stivers, C.; Moravek, C.; Johnson, P.; Flannery, J. Grunion Greeters in California: Beach-spawning fish, coastal stewardship, beach management and ecotourism. In Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal & Marine Tourism Congress: Balancing Marine Tourism, Development and Sustainability; Lück, M., Gräupl, A., Auyong, J., Miller, M.L., Orams, M.B., Eds.; New Zealand Tourism Research Institute: Auckland, New Zealand, 2007; pp. 73–86. [Google Scholar]
- Schoeman, D.S.; Schlacher, T.A.; Defeo, O. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: Crossing a line in the sand. Glob. Chang Biol. 2014, 20, 2383–2392. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rogers-Bennett, L.; Catton, C.A. Marine heat wave and multiple stressors tip bull kelp forest to sea urchin barrens. Sci. Rep. 2019, 9, 15050. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Spratt, J.D. The amazing grunion. In Marine Resource Leaflet No. 3; California Department of Fish and Game: Sacramento, CA, USA, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- Roberts, D.; Lea, R.N.; Martin, K.L.M. First record of the occurrence of the California Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, in Tomales Bay, California; a northern extension of the species. Calif. Fish Game 2007, 93, 107–110. [Google Scholar]
- Johnson, P.B.; Martin, K.L.; Vandergon, T.L.; Honeycutt, R.L.; Burton, R.S.; Fry, A. Microsatellite and mitochondrial genetic comparisons between northern and southern populations of California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 2009, 2009, 467–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- San Diego Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan; San Diego Area Governments (SANDAG): San Diego, CA, USA, 2009; Volume 4, p. 60.
- Griggs, G.B.; Patsch, K.B.; Savoy, L.E. Living with the Changing California Coast; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Thompson, W.F. The spawning of the grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). Calif. Fish Game 1919, 5, 1–27. [Google Scholar]
- California Department of Boating and Waterways and State Coastal Conservancy; California Beach Restoration Study: Sacramento, CA, USA, 2002.
- Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M.; Rodil, I.F.; Revell, D.L.; Schroeter, S. Ecological effects of coastal armoring on sandy beaches. Mar. Ecol. 2008, 29, 160–170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Revell, D.L.; Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M. Physical and ecological responses of sandy beaches to the 1997-98 El Nino. J. Coast. Res. 2011, 27, 718–730. [Google Scholar]
- Orme, A.R.; Griggs, G.B.; Revell, D.L.; Zoulas, J.G.; Grandy, C.C.; Koo, H. Beach changes along the southern California coast during the 20th century: A comparison of natural and human forcing factors. Shore Beach 2011, 79, 38–50. [Google Scholar]
- Schooler, N.K.; Dugan, J.E.; Hubbard, D.M.; Straughan, D. Local scale processes drive long-term change in biodiversity of sandy beach ecosystems. Ecol. Evol. 2017, 7, 4822–4834. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O’Reilly, W.C.; Seymour, R.J. Overview of seasonal sand level changes on southern California beaches. Shore Beach 2009, 77, 39–46. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, K.; Douglas, B.C.; Leatherman, S.P. Global warming and coastal erosion. Clim. Chang. 2004, 64, 41–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vitousek, S.; Barnard, P.L.; Limber, P.; Erikson, L.; Cole, B. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change. JGR Earth Surf. 2017, 122, 782–806. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Speybroeck, J.; Bonte, D.; Courtens, W.; Gheskiere, T.; Grootaert, P.; Maelfait, J.-P.; Mathys, M.; Provoost, S.; Sabbe, K.; Stienen, E.W.M.; et al. Beach nourishment: An ecologically sound coastal defence alternative? A review. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 2006, 16, 419–435. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Flick, R.E.; Ewing, L.C. Sand volume needs of southern California beaches as a function of future sea-level rise rates. Shore Beach 2009, 7, 36–45. [Google Scholar]
- Miller, E.F.; McGowan, J.A. Faunal shift in southern California’s coastal fishes: A new assemblage and trophic structure takes hold. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2013, 127, 29–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griem, J.N.; Martin, K.L.M. Wave action: The environmental trigger for hatching in the California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae). Mar. Biol. 2000, 137, 177–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smyder, E.A.; Martin, K.L.M. Temperature effects on egg survival and hatching during the extended incubation period of California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 2002, 2002, 313–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moravek, C.L.; Martin, K.L. Life goes on: Delayed hatching, extended incubation, and heterokairy in development of embryonic California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis. Copeia 2011, 2011, 308–314. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|W0:||No fish or only a few individuals appear, with little or no spawning; not a run|
|W1:||Between 10–100 fish present on the beach over the time of the run, in one or more locations, with little spawning; poor run|
|W2:||During the peak of the run, 100–500 fish on the shore simultaneously, spawning in one or more locations along the beach; small run|
|W3:||During the peak of the run, hundreds to thousands of fish spawning at the same time in one or several areas of the beach; peak is less than 20 min; good run|
|W4:||During the peak of the run, thousands of fish are on the beach together, with little sand visible between them, in a restricted or large area of the beach. Peak lasts less than one hour.|
|W5:||At the peak of the run, fish fully cover an extensive area of the beach in massive numbers, several individuals deep, a silver lining along the surf. It is not possible to walk through the run without stepping on a fish. The peak lasts over an hour.|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Martin, K.L.M.; Adams, L.C. Effects of Repeated Sand Replenishment Projects on Runs of a Beach-Spawning Fish, the California Grunion. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030178
Martin KLM, Adams LC. Effects of Repeated Sand Replenishment Projects on Runs of a Beach-Spawning Fish, the California Grunion. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(3):178. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030178Chicago/Turabian Style
Martin, Karen L. M., and Loni C. Adams. 2020. "Effects of Repeated Sand Replenishment Projects on Runs of a Beach-Spawning Fish, the California Grunion" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 3: 178. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030178