Holography, Interferometry and Infrared Thermography Advances and Applications in Cultural Heritage

A special issue of Journal of Imaging (ISSN 2313-433X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019) | Viewed by 34958

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Greece
Interests: structural diagnosis; holography; holographic interferometry; speckle interferometry; NDT; laser; photonics; cultural heritage

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Guest Editor
1. Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs sur Marne, France
2. Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation (CRC), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Ministère de la Culture, Paris, France
Interests: non destructive control; cultural heritage; wall paintings

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cultural Heritage (CH) comprises objects and monuments of great value and irreplaceable importance for human kind civilisation. Hence their documentation, maintenance and preservation plays a key role to the human culture and identity worldwide deserving individual consideration of each and any of the unique masterpieces. Subjective visual assessment and qualitative imaging methods such as finger-knocking and photography are among the conventional tools used till today while subjectiveness is major drawback that necessitates searching for and implement new efficient technologies. New technology tools can be adopted by conservation professional not only to investigate long standing problems but also to assist the restoration work and to objectify the evaluation of the condition of an art object as a whole including the subsurface and the bulk. Such modern non-invasive imaging and investigation methods for the recording, documentation and diagnosis of CH enjoy nowadays an increase demand into everyday conservation practices. In last decade, the stimulated or active thermography has become increasingly widespread in cultural heritage diagnosis and this trend is kept increasing for a variety of applications in wall paintings, ceramics, easel painting, etc. The thermal response of heated surfaces provide objective information of the volume at millimetric scale revealing the presence of detachment or crack and other discontinuities in the internal structure of the material. Holography, stereoscopy, 3D scanning, and related to three-dimensional space reconstruction techniques allow to capture and archive for future representation entire historical spaces, art objects' 3D shape, surface texture and micromorphology, even color, and recently have been implemented in the museum floor representations of full color 3D replicas of museum objects. Interferometry and its many counterparts, as highly sensitive to spatial alterations methods, provide quantitative information in microscale of slight surface deformation either due to internal defects or external disturbances such as environmental fluctuations, handling, transportation, allowing monitoring of structural state directly from the surface of the artwork; and is used in artwork and building risk assessment and documentation as well as in projects regarding preventive conservation. 

Many new instruments as the above mentioned technologies and numerous other for assisting the structural and analytical investigations are available today, for most of them after long investigation periods in the laboratory. Surely, these are usually located in facilities found in specialized research institutes as they require specific expertise. However, through specialised European and national funding dissemination, out of laboratory use is closer than ever. New technology is tested and optimised, modern complimentary methods are coupled, prototype devices, hybrid workstations and integrated systems are developed and adjusted to conservation needs and many find the way to be tested and implemented in situ. Some they are already being used by conservation researchers in Cultural heritage laboratories or on-site conservation campaigns and a new era in CH research and everyday practices seems to rise for modern imaging and documentations technologies. This special issue aims to address the progress on these technologies that have witnessed an increase in demand and they are dealing with current challenges to provide advanced solutions and applications in the field of Cultural heritage. The fight against ageing and deterioration is a fight against time, and for Cultural Heritage protection is and will always be a never ending fight, since art is an immortal part of human civilisation for which humans can be proud in eternity.

Dr. Vivi Tornari
Dr. David Giovanacci
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Holography
  • Interferometry
  • Thermography
  • Documentation
  • Deformation
  • Imaging
  • Cultural heritage
  • Holographic Interferometry
  • Speckle Interferometry

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 10667 KiB  
Article
Tip Crack Imaging on Transparent Materials by Digital Holographic Microscopy
by Wen-Jing Zhou, Bo-Yu Li, Hong-Xia Shen, Deng-Ke He, Hong-Bo Zhang, Ying-Jie Yu and Vivi Tornari
J. Imaging 2019, 5(10), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5100080 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4324
Abstract
With this study, we propose a method to image the tip crack on transparent materials by using digital holographic microscopy. More specifically, an optical system based on Mach–Zehnder interference along with an inverted microscopy (Olympus CKX53) was used to image the tip crack [...] Read more.
With this study, we propose a method to image the tip crack on transparent materials by using digital holographic microscopy. More specifically, an optical system based on Mach–Zehnder interference along with an inverted microscopy (Olympus CKX53) was used to image the tip crack of Dammar Varnish transparent material under thermal excitation. A series of holograms were captured and reconstructed for the observation of the changes of the tip crack. The reconstructed holograms were also compared temporally to compute the temporal changes, showing the crack propagation phenomena. Results show that the Dammar Varnish is sensitive to the ambient temperature. Our research demonstrates that digital holographic microscopy is a promising technique for the detection of the fine tip crack and propagation in transparent materials. Full article
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13 pages, 9138 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Non-Destructive Testing of Heritage Mural Paintings Using Stimulated Infrared Thermography and Frequency Image Processing
by Kamel Mouhoubi, Vincent Detalle, Jean-Marc Vallet and Jean-Luc Bodnar
J. Imaging 2019, 5(9), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5090072 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4374
Abstract
Within the framework of conservation and assistance for the restoration of cultural property, a method of analysis assistance has been developed to help in the restoration of cultural heritage. Several collaborations have already demonstrated the possibility of defects detection (delamination, salts) in murals [...] Read more.
Within the framework of conservation and assistance for the restoration of cultural property, a method of analysis assistance has been developed to help in the restoration of cultural heritage. Several collaborations have already demonstrated the possibility of defects detection (delamination, salts) in murals paintings using stimulated infrared thermography. One of the difficulties encountered with infrared thermography applied to the analysis of works of art is the remanence of the pictorial layer. This difficulty can sometimes induce detection artifacts and false positives. A method of thermograms post-processing called PPT (pulse phase thermography) is described. The possibilities offered by the PPT in terms of reducing the optical effects associated with the pictorial layer are highlighted first with a simulation, and then through experiments. This approach can significantly improve the study of painted works of art such as wall paintings. Full article
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13 pages, 14848 KiB  
Article
Holographic Three-Dimensional Imaging of Terra-Cotta Warrior Model Using Fractional Fourier Transform
by Zhi-Fang Gao, Hua-Dong Zheng and Ying-Jie Yu
J. Imaging 2019, 5(8), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5080067 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4991
Abstract
Holographic three-dimensional (3D) imaging of Terra-Cotta Warrior model using Fractional Fourier Transform is introduced in this paper. Phase holograms of Terra-Cotta Warrior model are calculated from 60 horizontal viewing-angles by the use of fractional Fourier transform (FRT). Multiple phase holograms are calculated for [...] Read more.
Holographic three-dimensional (3D) imaging of Terra-Cotta Warrior model using Fractional Fourier Transform is introduced in this paper. Phase holograms of Terra-Cotta Warrior model are calculated from 60 horizontal viewing-angles by the use of fractional Fourier transform (FRT). Multiple phase holograms are calculated for each angle by adding proper pseudorandom phase to reduce the speckle noise of a reconstructed image. Experimental system based on high-resolution phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) is built for 3D image reconstruction from the calculated phase holograms. The texture of the Terra-Cotta Warrior model is rough. The calculation of rough texture is optimized in order to show better model details. The effects of computing distance and layer thickness on imaging quality are analyzed finally. Full article
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19 pages, 8737 KiB  
Article
Impact of Relative Humidity on Wood Sample: A Climate Chamber Experimental Simulation Monitored by Digital Holographic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
by Vivi Tornari, Thomas Basset, Michalis Andrianakis and Kyriaki Kosma
J. Imaging 2019, 5(7), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5070065 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4706
Abstract
Relative humidity (RH) changes are a natural environmental effect that forces organic materials to a constant cycle of achieving equilibrium. The present work is part of an ongoing research based on the hypothesis that the inevitable deleterious effects of the RH natural cycle [...] Read more.
Relative humidity (RH) changes are a natural environmental effect that forces organic materials to a constant cycle of achieving equilibrium. The present work is part of an ongoing research based on the hypothesis that the inevitable deleterious effects of the RH natural cycle may be prevented or minimized if a deformation threshold is assigned to each monitored endangered object prior to exposure to structural damage. In this paper the characterization of the behavior of a softwood sample (1.0 cm thick) submitted to RH abrupt cycles has been performed, in terms of mass and rate of displacement of the surface. The exemplary study is based on the concept of recording the RH impact directly from the material surface, allowing us to identify diversity in reaction with time, which in turn could determine the onset of structural changes prior to irreversible damage. The RH impact is measured as surface deformation from interference fringes, using a custom-made real time holography system with interferometric precision termed digital holographic speckle-pattern interferometry (DHSPI). The main observations presented here are a hysteresis in the dynamic sorption isotherm and a greater rate of displacement during the drying. A long-term experiment was performed to identify signs of ageing of the sample. The evolution of the mass and the rate of displacement stayed similar, an offset with an interesting behavior was observed and highlights ageing of wood. In order to produce a future preventive model for distinct art objects it is necessary to determine a deformation threshold for each material. In this context the study was planned to continue with organic samples bearing variable density and thickness under longer-term RH cycles and monitoring until the samples show visible signs of irreversible damage. Full article
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10 pages, 2386 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Optical Profilometry in the Study of Cultural Stone Weathering
by Dario Ambrosini, Tullio de Rubeis, Iole Nardi and Domenica Paoletti
J. Imaging 2019, 5(6), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5060060 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4616
Abstract
The problem of deterioration of marble or stone monuments on display in the open air was raised in scientific terms around the mid-nineteenth century, correctly sensing the close dependence between the increased speed of surfaces alteration and air pollution. However, only more recently, [...] Read more.
The problem of deterioration of marble or stone monuments on display in the open air was raised in scientific terms around the mid-nineteenth century, correctly sensing the close dependence between the increased speed of surfaces alteration and air pollution. However, only more recently, around the years 1980–1990, emerged a need for quantitative data to assess the degree of degradation and the relative danger in the future projections. Non-destructive techniques can be an important aid in assessing the state of degradation and, above all, its speed, directly on the most important monuments exposed to the urban environment. In this work we discuss some non-destructive techniques able to evaluate the alteration of the surface shape of artefacts exposed to the environment through a non-contact survey of their surface shape. Advantages and disadvantages will be highlighted, as well as the problems still open. Full article
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15 pages, 5166 KiB  
Article
Color Holography for the Documentation and Dissemination of Cultural Heritage: OptoClonesTM from Four Museums in Two Countries
by Andreas Sarakinos and Alkis Lembessis
J. Imaging 2019, 5(6), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5060059 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6568
Abstract
True-color holograms, as they are the most advanced and realistic three-dimensional images obtainable with current technologies, can become valuable tools for the preservation, documentation and diffusion of cultural heritage. In this respect, the transportable Z3RGB color holography system and the HoLoFoSTM [...] Read more.
True-color holograms, as they are the most advanced and realistic three-dimensional images obtainable with current technologies, can become valuable tools for the preservation, documentation and diffusion of cultural heritage. In this respect, the transportable Z3RGB color holography system and the HoLoFoSTM illuminant developed by the Hellenic Institute of Holography have been successfully utilized for the in-situ recording and displaying of OptoClonesTM (Denisyuk-type color holograms) in four museums and two countries. The holographic image of an OptoCloneTM is characterized by a wide angle of view, full parallax and perspective, good color rendition and ultra-realistic reproduction of the optical properties of the materials of an artefact. In this paper, we report on our accumulated expertise in on-site holographic documentation of museum artworks of various types, already from four museums of world caliber and reputation (Athens and Thessaloniki Byzantine, Fabergé Museum of St. Petersburg and Diamond Fund of Russia). In one case, a world’s first, the in-situ recorded OptoClonesTM have been subsequently displayed as part of the permanent exhibition of the Byzantine & Christian Museum of Athens in replacement of the original artifacts while on loan. On another occasion involving State Treasures from the Diamond Fund of Russia, the recorded OptoClonesTM exhibited inside the Moscow Kremlin were highly appraised by officials and international experts as well as the general public allowing reasonable optimism for the prospects of Display Holography for museums. Full article
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21 pages, 6811 KiB  
Article
A Combined Non-Invasive Approach to the Study of A Mosaic Model: First Laboratory Experimental Results
by Antonina Chaban, Vivi Tornari, Rita Deiana, Michalis Andrianakis, David Giovannacci and Vincent Detalle
J. Imaging 2019, 5(6), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging5060058 - 10 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4799
Abstract
This paper presents first laboratory results of a combined approach carried out by the use of three different portable non-invasive electromagnetic methods: Digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry (DHSPI), stimulated infrared thermography (SIRT) and holographic subsurface radar (HSR), proposed for the analysis of a [...] Read more.
This paper presents first laboratory results of a combined approach carried out by the use of three different portable non-invasive electromagnetic methods: Digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry (DHSPI), stimulated infrared thermography (SIRT) and holographic subsurface radar (HSR), proposed for the analysis of a custom-built wall mosaic model. The model reproduces a series of defects (e.g., cracks, voids, detachments), simulating common deteriorated, restored or reshuffled areas in wall mosaics. DHSPI and SIRT, already well known in the field of non-destructive (NDT) methods, are full-field contactless techniques, providing complementary information on the subsurface hidden discontinuities. The use of DHSPI, based on optical imaging and interferometry, provides remote control and visualization of surface micro-deformation after induced thermal stress, while the use of SIRT allows visualization of thermal energy diffusion in the surface upon the induced thermal stress. DHSPI and SIRT data are complemented by the use of HSR, a contact method that provides localized information about the distribution of contrasts in dielectric permittivity and related possible anomalies. The experimental results, made by the combined use of these methods to the identification of the known anomalies in the mosaic model, are presented and discussed here as a contribution in the development of an efficient non-invasive approach to the in-situ subsurface analysis of ancient wall mosaics. Full article
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