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Roles and Applications of Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 2662

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Guest Editor
Department of Bioengineering and Nano-Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea
Interests: exosome; cell engineering; liquid biopsy; disease diagnosis; biologics development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small nano-sized particles that are constantly produced and secreted by cells. Since EVs originate from cells, they contain cellular components such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, DNAs, and RNAs. They facilitate cell-to-cell communication through transferring those encapsulated components. As central mediators of intercellular communication, EVs play important roles in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer progression and metastasis. In this context, understanding the roles of EVs in health and disease is essential for the practical applications of EVs in therapy and diagnosis.

The Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, “Roles and Applications of Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Disease”, will focus on (1) biogenesis or biochemical properties of EVs, (2) functional analysis of EVs in health and disease, (3) engineering EVs for therapeutic development, and (4) EV-based diagnosis. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Dr. Won Jong Rhee
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicle
  • disease
  • exosome
  • microvesicle
  • mechanism
  • application
  • therapy
  • diagnosis
  • liquid biopsy

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

20 pages, 3078 KiB  
Article
Early Effects of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Cells in Renal Ischemia Followed by Reperfusion: Mechanisms Rely on a Decrease in Mitochondrial Anion Superoxide Production
by Jarlene A. Lopes, Federica Collino, Clara Rodrigues-Ferreira, Luzia da Silva Sampaio, Glória Costa-Sarmento, Camila H. C. Wendt, Fernando P. Almeida, Kildare R. Miranda, Tais H. Kasai-Brunswick, Rafael S. Lindoso and Adalberto Vieyra
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 2906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23062906 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•−) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administered during reperfusion can suppress the [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by intense anion superoxide (O2•−) production and oxidative damage. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles secreted by adipose tissue mesenchymal cells (EVs) administered during reperfusion can suppress the exacerbated mitochondrial O2•− formation after I/R. We used Wistar rats subjected to bilateral renal arterial clamping (30 min) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The animals received EVs (I/R + EVs group) or saline (I/R group) in the kidney subcapsular space. The third group consisted of false-operated rats (SHAM). Mitochondria were isolated from proximal tubule cells and used immediately. Amplex Red™ was used to measure mitochondrial O2 formation and MitoTracker™ Orange to evaluate inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ). In vitro studies were carried out on human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) co-cultured or not with EVs under hypoxic conditions. Administration of EVs restored O2•− formation to SHAM levels in all mitochondrial functional conditions. The gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase-1 remained unmodified; transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated. The co-cultures of HK-2 cells with EVs revealed an intense decrease in apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanisms by which EVs favor long-term recovery of renal structures and functions after I/R rely on a decrease of mitochondrial O2•− formation with the aid of the upregulated antioxidant HO-1/Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 system, thus opening new vistas for the treatment of AKI. Full article
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