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Special Issue "Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease 2022"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 2677

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Isabella Savini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: nutrition; platelets; redox state; phenolic compounds; cardiovascular diseases; obesity; metabolic syndrome
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Maria Valeria Catani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: platelets; oxidative stress; cancer; vitamin C; blood coagulation; inflammation; apoptosis; bioactive lipids; redox-sensitive transcription factors; microRNAs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Platelets are small anucleated cytoplasmic fragments derived from large megakaryocytes residing in bone marrow that are primarily recognized for their fundamental role in haemostasis and thrombosis. In response to vascular injury, platelets quickly adhere to sub-endothelial matrix proteins, through specific adhesion-signalling receptors whose activation leads to a cascade of events resulting in platelet spreading, granule secretion, aggregation and clot retraction.

To date, a large body of evidence has highlighted the ability of platelets to act as multifunctional cells, which actively influence a widespread range of apparently unrelated patho–physiological events. Platelets, indeed, play a central role in inflammation, an underlying cause in several pathologies (among them cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal diseases) as well as in infection, cancer, neurodegeneration and other brain dysfunctions.

For readers, this Special Issue, “Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease”, will provide an up-to-date description of the more intriguing aspects of platelet biology, highly relevant to human diseases.

Dr. Valeria Gasperi
Dr. Isabella Savini
Dr. Maria Valeria Catani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • platelets
  • hemostasis
  • cancer
  • microRNA
  • inflammatory diseases
  • cell-to-cell crosstalk
  • endothelium
  • infection
  • brain disease

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
A New Role of NAP1L1 in Megakaryocytes and Human Platelets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314694 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Platelets (PLTs) are anucleate and considered incapable of nuclear functions. Contrastingly, nuclear proteins were detected in human PLTs. For most of these proteins, it is unclear if nuclear or alternatively assigned functions are performed, a question we wanted to address for nuclear assembly [...] Read more.
Platelets (PLTs) are anucleate and considered incapable of nuclear functions. Contrastingly, nuclear proteins were detected in human PLTs. For most of these proteins, it is unclear if nuclear or alternatively assigned functions are performed, a question we wanted to address for nuclear assembly protein 1like 1 (NAP1L1). Using a wide array of molecular methods, including RNAseq, co-IP, overexpression and functional assays, we explored expression pattern and functionality of NAP1L1 in PLTs, and CD34+-derived megakaryocytes (MKs). NAP1L1 is expressed in PLTs and MKs. Co-IP experiments revealed that dihydrolipolylysine-residue acetyltransferase (DLAT encoded protein PDC-E2, ODP2) dynamically interacts with NAP1L1. PDC-E2 is part of the mitochondrial pyruvate-dehydrogenase (PDH) multi-enzyme complex, playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular respiration, and promoting ATP-synthesis via the respiratory chain. Since altered mitochondrial function is a hallmark of infectious syndromes, we analyzed PDH activity in PLTs from septic patients demonstrating increased activity, paralleling NAP1L1 expression levels. MKs PDH activity decreased following an LPS-challenge. Furthermore, overexpression of NAP1L1 significantly altered the ability of MKs to form proplatelet extensions, diminishing thrombopoiesis. These results indicate that NAP1L1 performs in other than nucleosome-assembly functions in PTLs and MKs, binding a key mitochondrial protein as a potential chaperone, and gatekeeper, influencing PDH activity and thrombopoiesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease 2022)
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Article
A Novel Antibody Targeting the Second Extracellular Loop of the Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Inhibits Platelet Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158794 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 864
Abstract
Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine or 5-HT) is known to be a weak platelet agonist, and is involved in thrombus formation. While 5-HT cannot induce platelet aggregation on its own, when secreted from the alpha granules, it binds to its G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR; i.e., 5HT [...] Read more.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine or 5-HT) is known to be a weak platelet agonist, and is involved in thrombus formation. While 5-HT cannot induce platelet aggregation on its own, when secreted from the alpha granules, it binds to its G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR; i.e., 5HT2AR), thereby acting to amplify platelet functional responses (e.g., aggregation). Thus, 5HT2AR-mediated responses are more involved in the secondary amplification of platelet aggregation in the growing thrombus. Therefore, even though 5-HT can be seen as a weak inducer of platelet activation, it is an important amplifier of aggregation triggered by agonists such as ADP, collagen, and epinephrine, thereby enhancing thrombogenesis. The 5HT2AR/5HT2A signaling pathway is of clinical interest to the scientific and medical communities as it has been implicated in the genesis of several forms of cardiovascular disorders. However, efforts to develop antagonists for 5HT2AR as therapeutic agents in cardiovascular diseases have thus far failed due to these reagents having deleterious side-effects, and/or to lack of selectivity, amongst other reasons. In light of research efforts that identified that the 5HT2AR ligand binding domain resides in the second extracellular loop (EL2; amino acids P209-N233), we developed an antibody, i.e., referred to as 5HT2ARAb, against the EL2 region, and characterized its pharmacological activity in the context of platelets. Thus, we utilized platelets from healthy human donors, as well as C57BL/6J mice (10–12 weeks old) to analyze the inhibitory effects of the 5HT2ARAb on platelet activation in vitro, ex vivo, and on thrombogenesis in vivo as well as on 5HT2AR ligand binding. Our results indicate that the 5HT2ARAb inhibits 5-HT-enhanced platelet activation in vitro and ex vivo, but has no apparent effects on that which is agonist-induced. The 5HT2ARAb was also found to prolong the thrombus occlusion time, and it did so without modulating the tail bleeding time, in mice unlike the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel and the 5HT2AR antagonist ketanserin. Moreover, it was found that the 5HT2ARAb does so by directly antagonizing the platelet 5HT2AR. Our findings document that the custom-made 5HT2ARAb exhibits platelet function blocking activity and protects against thrombogenesis without impairing normal hemostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease 2022)
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Article
Platelet-Derived miR-126-3p Directly Targets AKT2 and Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects in Breast Cancer Cells: Further Insights in Platelet-Cancer Interplay
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105484 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Among the surrounding cells influencing tumor biology, platelets are recognized as novel players as they release microvesicles (MVs) that, once delivered to cancer cells, modulate signaling pathways related to cell growth and dissemination. We have previously shown that physiological delivery of platelet MVs [...] Read more.
Among the surrounding cells influencing tumor biology, platelets are recognized as novel players as they release microvesicles (MVs) that, once delivered to cancer cells, modulate signaling pathways related to cell growth and dissemination. We have previously shown that physiological delivery of platelet MVs enriched in miR-126 exerted anti-tumor effects in different breast cancer (BC) cell lines. Here, we seek further insight by identifying AKT2 kinase as a novel miR-126-3p direct target, as assessed by bioinformatic analysis and validated by luciferase assay. Both ectopic expression and platelet MV-mediated delivery of miR-126-3p downregulated AKT2 expression, thus suppressing proliferating and invading properties, in either triple negative (BT549 cells) or less aggressive Luminal A (MCF-7 cells) BC subtypes. Accordingly, as shown by bioinformatic analysis, both high miR-126 and low AKT2 levels were associated with favorable long-term prognosis in BC patients. Our results, together with the literature data, indicate that miR-126-3p exerts suppressor activity by specifically targeting components of the PIK3/AKT signaling cascade. Therefore, management of platelet-derived MV production and selective delivery of miR-126-3p to tumor cells may represent a useful tool in multimodal therapeutic approaches in BC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Platelet Activity in Health and Disease 2022)
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