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The Molecular Aspects of Gut-Brain Communications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 8937

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Rheological Functions of Food, Emeritus Professor of Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Interests: brain fatigue; neuroinflammation; plasmalogen; immune system; biorheology

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Guest Editor
Division of Lipid Cell Biology, Institute of Rheological Functions of Food, Fukuoka 811-2501, Japan
Interests: lipid signaling in gut epithelial cells; animal model of behavioural studies; learning and memory; nervous system; immune system; neuroinflammation; neurodegenrative diseases; vagus nerve; cancer and diabetes

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Guest Editor
Department of Neuroinflammation and Brain Fatigue Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Interests: plasmalogen; microbiome; lactobacillus; cerebellum; peroxisome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gut and brain are connected through millions of nerves. It is well believed that the gut can control the brain, but the precise mechanism of the gut–brain axis remains elusive. The gut microbial flora could significantly alter brain function including our emotion and behavior, suggesting that the manipulation of gut microenvironments could be the future therapeutic approach to prevent or cure various diseases. There is much to learn about how the microbiota and dietary components influence the gut microenvironments which could ultimately affect brain function. To understand the molecular mechanism of gut–brain communication, we would like to invite high-quality research works as well as review articles in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Takehiko Fujino
Dr. Md Shamim Hossain
Dr. Masanori Honsho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • gut–brain axis
  • vagus nerve
  • gut microbiota
  • intestinal epithelial cells
  • immune cells
  • central nervous system
  • enteric nervous system
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • stress
  • fatigue
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • aging
  • animal model

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
New Insights of OLFM2 and OLFM4 in Gut-Liver Axis and Their Potential Involvement in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
by Laia Bertran, Rosa Jorba-Martin, Andrea Barrientos-Riosalido, Marta Portillo-Carrasquer, Carmen Aguilar, David Riesco, Salomé Martínez, Margarita Vives, Fàtima Sabench, Daniel Del Castillo, Cristóbal Richart and Teresa Auguet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 7442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137442 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Olfactomedins (OLFMs) are a family of glycoproteins that play a relevant role in embryonic development and in some pathological processes. Although OLFM2 is involved in the regulation of the energy metabolism and OLFM4 is an important player in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer, [...] Read more.
Olfactomedins (OLFMs) are a family of glycoproteins that play a relevant role in embryonic development and in some pathological processes. Although OLFM2 is involved in the regulation of the energy metabolism and OLFM4 is an important player in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer, the role of OLFMs in NAFLD-related intestinal dysbiosis remains unknown. In this study, we analysed the hepatic mRNA expression of OLFM2 and the jejunal expression of OLFM4 in a well-established cohort of women with morbid obesity (MO), classified according to their hepatic histology into normal liver (n = 27), simple steatosis (n = 26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 16). Our results showed that OLFM2 hepatic mRNA was higher in NASH, in advanced degrees of steatosis and in the presence of lobular inflammation. Additionally, we obtained positive correlations between hepatic OLFM2 and glucose, cholesterol, trimethylamine N-oxide and deoxycholic acid levels and hepatic fatty acid synthase, and negative associations with weight and jejunal Toll-like receptors (TLR4) and TLR5 expression. Regarding jejunal OLFM4, we observed positive correlations with circulating interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-17 and jejunal TLR9. In conclusion, OLFM2 in the liver seems to play a relevant role in NAFLD progression, while OLFM4 in the jejunum could be involved in gut dysbiosis-related inflammatory events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Aspects of Gut-Brain Communications)
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Review

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16 pages, 894 KiB  
Review
The Molecular Gut-Brain Axis in Early Brain Development
by Fahim Muhammad, Bufang Fan, Ruoxi Wang, Jiayan Ren, Shuhui Jia, Liping Wang, Zuxin Chen and Xin-An Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315389 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
Millions of nerves, immune factors, and hormones in the circulatory system connect the gut and the brain. In bidirectional communication, the gut microbiota play a crucial role in the gut-brain axis (GBA), wherein microbial metabolites of the gut microbiota regulate intestinal homeostasis, thereby [...] Read more.
Millions of nerves, immune factors, and hormones in the circulatory system connect the gut and the brain. In bidirectional communication, the gut microbiota play a crucial role in the gut-brain axis (GBA), wherein microbial metabolites of the gut microbiota regulate intestinal homeostasis, thereby influencing brain activity. Dynamic changes are observed in gut microbiota as well as during brain development. Altering the gut microbiota could serve as a therapeutic target for treating abnormalities associated with brain development. Neurophysiological development and immune regulatory disorders are affected by changes that occur in gut microbiota composition and function. The molecular aspects relevant to the GBA could help develop targeted therapies for neurodevelopmental diseases. Herein, we review the findings of recent studies on the role of the GBA in its underlying molecular mechanisms in the early stages of brain development. Furthermore, we discuss the bidirectional regulation of gut microbiota from mother to infant and the potential signaling pathways and roles of posttranscriptional modifications in brain functions. Our review summarizes the role of molecular GBA in early brain development and related disorders, providing cues for novel therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Aspects of Gut-Brain Communications)
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17 pages, 2251 KiB  
Review
How Microbiota-Derived Metabolites Link the Gut to the Brain during Neuroinflammation
by Jessica Rebeaud, Benjamin Peter and Caroline Pot
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 10128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231710128 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
Microbiota-derived metabolites are important molecules connecting the gut to the brain. Over the last decade, several studies have highlighted the importance of gut-derived metabolites in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, microbiota-derived metabolites modulate the immune system and affect demyelination. Here, we [...] Read more.
Microbiota-derived metabolites are important molecules connecting the gut to the brain. Over the last decade, several studies have highlighted the importance of gut-derived metabolites in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, microbiota-derived metabolites modulate the immune system and affect demyelination. Here, we discuss the current knowledge about microbiota-derived metabolites implications in MS and in different mouse models of neuroinflammation. We focus on the main families of microbial metabolites that play a role during neuroinflammation. A better understanding of the role of those metabolites may lead to new therapeutical avenues to treat neuroinflammatory diseases targeting the gut–brain axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular Aspects of Gut-Brain Communications)
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