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Special Issue "Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2023 | Viewed by 12886

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. M. Carmen Míguez Varela
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Interests: perinatal mental health; smoking and pregnancy; perinatal anxiety and depression; smoking
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue (2nd Edition) will focus on women's mental health at two important periods in their lives: pregnancy and postpartum. Therefore, we are seeking high-quality contributions on themes relating to perinatal mental health. Research on the topic includes prevalence, screening and diagnostic instruments, comorbidity, associated and/or risk factors, effects or consequences, and interventions.

An estimated one in five women will develop a mental disorder during pregnancy and/or postpartum up to one year after childbirth. Depression and anxiety are the most prevalent perinatal mental disorders and a major public health problem with adverse health consequences for mother and baby. Despite this, there is no standard protocol that healthcare professionals can follow to help them detect possible cases of mental health problems. As a result, many women are left unscreened, undiagnosed, and thus untreated for a treatable disorder. On the other hand, to design specific prevention and intervention programs, it is crucial to investigate the variables associated with an increased risk of perinatal mental-health problems. For example, substance abuse, such as tobacco and alcohol, is often associated with mental-health disorders during pregnancy.

This Special Issue will interest researchers and practitioners in mental health, maternal and child health, and women´s health. I hope that this Special Issue will also encourage healthcare professionals to be more aware of the importance of this issue, screen for prenatal and postpartum depression or anxiety, and learn about mental-health resources available in their communities.

I invite those of you working in this area to submit articles on themes relating to mental health in pregnancy and postpartum. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some areas of potential interest.

 

Prof. Dr. María del Carmen Míguez Varela

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • perinatal mental health
  • perinatal depression
  • perinatal anxiety
  • perinatal stress
  • assessment tools
  • epidemiology
  • perinatal mental health and tobacco consumption
  • perinatal mental health and alcohol consumption
  • risk factors
  • effects
  • prevention
  • treatment

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Impact of Facebook on Social Support and Emotional Wellbeing in Perinatal Women during Three Waves of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Mexico: A Descriptive Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032472 - 30 Jan 2023
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women in unique, unprecedented ways. Given the impossibility of delivering face-to-face care, digital platforms emerged as a first-line solution to provide emotional support. This qualitative study sought to examine the role that [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women in unique, unprecedented ways. Given the impossibility of delivering face-to-face care, digital platforms emerged as a first-line solution to provide emotional support. This qualitative study sought to examine the role that a closed Facebook group (CFG) played in providing social support for Mexican perinatal women and to explore the concerns they shared during the COVID-19 pandemic. A thematic analysis of all the posts in the CFG yielded nine main categories: (1) COVID-19 infections in participants and their families; (2) fear of infection; (3) infection prevention; (4) health services; (5) vaccines; (6) concerns about non-COVID-19-related health care; (7) effects of social isolation; (8) probable mental health cases; and (9) work outside the home. Participants faced stressful situations and demands that caused intense fear and worry. In addition to household tasks and perinatal care, they were responsible for adopting COVID-19 preventive measures and caring for infected family members. The main coping mechanism was their religious faith. The CFG was found to be a useful forum for supporting perinatal women, where they could share concerns, resolve doubts, and obtain information in a warm, compassionate, and empathetic atmosphere. Health providers would be advised to seek new social media to improve the quality of their services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
Article
Social Determinants and Prevalence of Antenatal Depression among Women in Rural Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032364 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The prevalence of antenatal depression in Bangladesh ranges from 18 to 33%. Antenatal depression has negative impacts on the mother and child such as suicidal ideations, low birth weight, and impaired fetal development. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and social [...] Read more.
The prevalence of antenatal depression in Bangladesh ranges from 18 to 33%. Antenatal depression has negative impacts on the mother and child such as suicidal ideations, low birth weight, and impaired fetal development. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and social determinants of antenatal depression in rural Sylhet, Bangladesh. Data were collected from 235 pregnant women between March and November 2021. The validated Bangla Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS). Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire including the Duke Social Support and Stress Scale, pregnancy choices, and WHO Intimate Partner Violence questions. Point-prevalence of antenatal depression was 56%. Intimate partner violence (IPV) before pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 10.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–39.7]) and perceived husband’s male gender preference (AOR 9.9 [95% CI 1.6–59.6]) were significantly associated with increased odds of ADS among pregnant women. Increased family support was a significant protective factor for ADS (AOR 0.94 [95% CI 0.91–0.97]). Antenatal depression commonly occurs in rural Sylhet, Bangladesh, highlighting the need for improved screening and management within these settings. The findings suggest the need for community-based interventions for women with low family support and experiencing intimate partner violence, and educational programs and gender policies to tackle gender inequalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Mother-Child Bond through Feeding: A Prospective Study including Neuroticism, Pregnancy Worries and Post-Traumatic Symptomatology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032115 - 24 Jan 2023
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common postpartum problem and influences maternal bonding with the infant. However, the relationship between this disorder, maternal personality, and the infant’s emotional state during feeding is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common postpartum problem and influences maternal bonding with the infant. However, the relationship between this disorder, maternal personality, and the infant’s emotional state during feeding is not clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the contribution of neuroticism on the infant’s emotional state during feeding, by attending to the mediating role of postpartum PTSD (P-PTSD) symptoms and the moderating role of worries during pregnancy. A prospective design study was developed with 120 women with a low pregnancy risk. They responded to a questionnaire assessing maternal personality (first trimester), worries during pregnancy (third trimester), P-PTSD symptoms, and mother-baby bonding (4 months postpartum). The results showed a positive association among neuroticism, infant irritability during feeding, and P-PTSD symptoms, suggesting the latter plays a mediating role in the relationship between neuroticism and infant irritability (B = 0.102, standard error (SE) = 0.03, 95% coefficient interval (CI) [0.038, 0.176]). Excessive worries, related to coping with infant care, played a moderating role between neuroticism and P-PTSD symptoms (B = 0.413, SE = 0.084, p = 0.006, 95% CI [0.245, 0.581]). This relationship was interfered with by depressive symptoms in the first trimester (covariate) (B = 1.820, SE = 0.420, p = 0.016, ci [2.314, 0.251]). This study contributes to a better understanding of the role of neuroticism as an influential factor in the occurrence of P-PTSD symptoms, and in the impairment of infant bonding during feeding. Paying attention to these factors may favor the development of psychological support programs for mothers, with the aim of strengthening the bond with their child. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Initial Impact of Perinatal Loss on Mothers and Their Partners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021304 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 456
Abstract
(1) Background: Perinatal Loss affects one in ten women worldwide. It is known to have a deep impact on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the mother. Moreover, there is a lack of information in regard to gender differences. The role of culture, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Perinatal Loss affects one in ten women worldwide. It is known to have a deep impact on the physical and psychological wellbeing of the mother. Moreover, there is a lack of information in regard to gender differences. The role of culture, environment, personal characteristics, and gender is yet to be determined in most reports; (2) Objective and Methods: Our aim is to study the initial impact of perinatal losses in an unselected sample of couples, focusing on gender differences. We conducted a longitudinal prospective study with 29 mothers and 17 fathers. Upon discharge from the hospital, they filled out the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), among others. After one-month post-loss, they performed the EPDS and the Short Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale. We used descriptive statistics for the sample and non-parametric tests for the comparison of gender; (3) Results: We found no gender differences in initial depressive symptoms, nor in depressive symptoms, perinatal grief symptoms, or grief level (total scores or complicated grief) one month after the loss; (4) Conclusions: we need to better understand the psychological evolution of couples in cases of perinatal loss without falling into preconceived ideas about the influence of gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
Article
A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Intimacy Problems, Stress Levels, and Couple Satisfaction among Women with Thrombophilia Affected by Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021208 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the most challenging and difficult areas of reproductive treatment due to the immense emotional suffering inflicted on families and couples affected by RPL. As a result, it is predicted that couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss would [...] Read more.
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the most challenging and difficult areas of reproductive treatment due to the immense emotional suffering inflicted on families and couples affected by RPL. As a result, it is predicted that couples experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss would have an increase in marital problems, stress levels, and anxiety, preventing them from achieving their family goals. The current cross-sectional study aimed to target pregnant women with thrombophilia with a history of RPL to observe their intimacy problems, stress levels, and couple satisfaction by completing a series of digital questionnaires. These patients were considered as the reference group, while the control group was formed by other women with thrombophilia and a history of RPL who eventually achieved pregnancy and gave birth. A total of 238 complete questionnaires were recorded (157 in the reference group and 81 in the control group). It was observed that women in the reference group who did not give birth had a significantly higher proportion of three or more pregnancy attempts (54.1% vs. 39.5%) and a significantly higher proportion of three more pregnancy losses (68.8% vs. 55.6%). It was observed that patients in the reference group were more likely to be emotion-oriented (42.7% vs. 27.2%). Also, women in the reference group had higher levels of dissatisfaction and lower levels of self-acceptance, pleasure, and marital quality scores. The total SII and DSCS scores were significantly lower than women with thrombophilia with a history of RPL who eventually gave birth. Women from the reference group had significantly greater intimacy problems and stress levels while having lower openness scores and self-esteem scores than women in the control group. It is possible that women with thrombophilia and recurrent pregnancy loss are more dissatisfied with their marriages than those who subsequently had one child. Since the financial status of those who achieved pregnancy was observed to be higher, it is likely that they achieved pregnancy by ART interventions, as they reported in questionnaires. It is important to target families afflicted by thrombophilia and other reasons for infertility to ease their access to ART therapies. By achieving their objectives, affected families will minimize dissatisfaction, divorce rates, and stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Couple’s Relationship during the Transition to Parenthood and Toddler’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010882 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The literature has mainly focused on the impact of the negative aspects of the couple’s relationship on the toddler’s internalizing and externalizing problems. This study explored the impact of the positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood [...] Read more.
The literature has mainly focused on the impact of the negative aspects of the couple’s relationship on the toddler’s internalizing and externalizing problems. This study explored the impact of the positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood on toddlers’ psychological adjustment, considering the concurrent impact of the couple’s relationship at 30 months postpartum. The sample comprised 115 mothers and fathers (N = 230) recruited during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. The mothers and fathers individually completed a measure of the couple’s relationship (Relationship Questionnaire) during the first trimester of pregnancy, at 3 and 30 months postpartum, and the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 at 30 months postpartum. Multiple linear regressions, cluster analyses, and univariate and multivariate analyses of variance were conducted. The positive dimension at the 1st trimester of pregnancy and the negative dimension of the couple’s relationship at 3 months postpartum were the strongest predictors of the toddler’s internalizing problems, while the negative dimension at 3 months postpartum and the positive dimension of the couple’s relationship at 30 months postpartum were the strongest predictors of the toddler’s externalizing problems. Two patterns of the couple’s relationship (adjusted vs. non-adjusted) during the transition to parenthood were identified. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems were found in toddlers from couples with a non-adjusted couple’s relationship. Findings suggested the impact of both positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood on the toddler’s emotional and behavioral problems. Promoting the couple’s relationship adjustment during the transition to parenthood can help to prevent toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Prenatal Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health, and Diabetes Self-Efficacy: A Moderated Mediation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013603 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Background: Diabetes leads to risk for pregnant persons and their fetuses and requires behavioral changes that can be compromised by poor mental health. Poor self-rated health (SRH), a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality, has been associated with depressive symptoms and lower self-efficacy [...] Read more.
Background: Diabetes leads to risk for pregnant persons and their fetuses and requires behavioral changes that can be compromised by poor mental health. Poor self-rated health (SRH), a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality, has been associated with depressive symptoms and lower self-efficacy in patients with diabetes. However, it is unclear whether SRH mediates the association between depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in pregnant patients with diabetes and whether the healthcare site moderates the mediation. Thus, we sought to test these associations in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of pregnant individuals diagnosed with diabetes from two clinical settings. Materials and methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 137 pregnant individuals diagnosed with diabetes at two clinical study sites. Participants self-administered a demographic questionnaire and measures designed to assess depressive symptoms, SRH in pregnancy, and diabetes self-efficacy. A moderated mediation model tested whether these indirect effects were moderated by the site. Results: The results show that SRH mediated the association between depressive symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. The results also showed the site moderated the mediating effect of SRH on depressive symptoms and diabetes self-efficacy. Conclusions: Understanding the role of clinical care settings can help inform when and how SRH mediates that association between prenatal depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Modifiable Maternal Factors and Their Relationship to Postpartum Depression
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912393 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to examine how modifiable maternal factors (body mass index (BMI), household income, fatigue, sleep, breastfeeding status, diet, and physical activity) relate to postpartum depression (PPD) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Participants (n = 26) participated in [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to examine how modifiable maternal factors (body mass index (BMI), household income, fatigue, sleep, breastfeeding status, diet, and physical activity) relate to postpartum depression (PPD) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Participants (n = 26) participated in two study visits (6 and 12 months postpartum) where vitals, weight, body composition (skinfold anthropometrics), and physical activity levels (Actigraph GTX9 accelerometer) were assessed. Validated instruments (BRUMS-32, Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, Pittsburg Sleep Quality index, NIH breastfeeding survey, NIH Dietary History Questionnaire, and Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale) assessed lifestyle and demographic factors of interest. PPD at six months was correlated to PPD at 12 months (r = 0.926, p < 0.001). At six months postpartum, PPD was positively correlated to BMI (r = 0.473, p = 0.020) and fatigue (r = 0.701, p < 0.001), and negatively correlated to household income (r = −0.442, p = 0.035). Mothers who were breastfeeding had lower PPD scores (breastfeeding 3.9 ± 3.5 vs. not breastfeeding 7.6 ± 4.8, p = 0.048). At 12 months, PPD was positively correlated to sleep scores (where a higher score indicates poorer sleep quality) (r = 0.752, p < 0.001) and fatigue (r = 0.680, p = 0.004). When analyzed collectively via regression analyses, household income and fatigue appeared to be the strongest predictors of PPD at six months postpartum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Associations between Self-Rated Health and Perinatal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Latina Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 11978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191911978 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine whether decreases in or consistently low preconception to pregnancy self-rated health (SRH) were associated with perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms among Latinas. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 153 perinatal Latinas. Three [...] Read more.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine whether decreases in or consistently low preconception to pregnancy self-rated health (SRH) were associated with perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms among Latinas. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of 153 perinatal Latinas. Three groups were created to capture SRH from preconception to pregnancy: a decline in ratings, consistently low, and good+ (i.e., good, very good, or excellent). SRH was measured using two questions about their perceived physical health before and during pregnancy. Depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms were assessed in the third trimester and six weeks postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Life stressors were assessed in pregnancy using a modified version of the Life Experiences Survey. Linear regressions tested the associations. Results: Women with consistently low (i.e., fair or poor) SRH reported significantly more prenatal depressive symptoms than women who reported consistently good+ SRH. Women who reported a decline in SRH to fair or poor reported more prenatal anxiety symptoms but decreased postpartum anxiety symptoms than women who reported consistently good+ ratings. Life stressors were positively associated with prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Healthcare practitioners should assess changes in SRH ratings to identify risks for prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms among Latinas, who have elevated rates of depressive and anxiety symptoms compared to non-Hispanic White women. Policymakers should provide healthcare providers with mental health resources to support at-risk Latinas during the prenatal period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
Article
Acceptance Mindfulness-Trait as a Protective Factor for Post-Natal Depression: A Preliminary Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031545 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) reaches up to 20%. PND could be based on the interaction between a psychological vulnerability and chronic stress that pregnancy would activate. Vulnerability factors reflect a psychological profile mirroring mindfulness-trait (MT). A high level of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) reaches up to 20%. PND could be based on the interaction between a psychological vulnerability and chronic stress that pregnancy would activate. Vulnerability factors reflect a psychological profile mirroring mindfulness-trait (MT). A high level of MT is associated with an efficient regulation of both physiological and psychological stress, especially negative moods. Interestingly, mindfulness level can be improved by program based on mindfulness meditation. We hypothesize that MT is a protective factor for PND. We also postulate that negative moods increase during the pregnancy for women who develop a PND after delivery (2) Methods: we conducted a multicentric prospective longitudinal study including 85 women during their first trimester of their pregnancy and 72 from the childbirth to the baby’s first birthday”. At the inclusion, presence and acceptance of MT and various variables of personality and of psychological functioning were assessed. Mood evolution was monitored each month during the pregnancy and a delivery trauma risk was evaluated after delivery. PND detection was carried out at 48 h, 2, 6 and 12 months after the delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale with a screening cut-off >11. (3) Results: high-acceptance MT is a protective factor for PND (OR: 0.79). Women without PND displayed less negative mood during pregnancy (p < 0.05 for Anxiety, Confusion and Anger). (4) Conclusions: these results suggest the value of deploying programs to enhance the level of mindfulness, especially in its acceptance dimension, before, during and after pregnancy, to reduce the risk of PND. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Article
Birth Experience, Postpartum PTSD and Depression before and during the Pandemic of COVID-19 in Russia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010335 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
The aim of the study is to investigate the changes in the maternal healthcare system during the pandemic and their associations with maternal mental health in Russia. A sample of Russian women who gave birth during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to investigate the changes in the maternal healthcare system during the pandemic and their associations with maternal mental health in Russia. A sample of Russian women who gave birth during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 1645) and matched controls, i.e., women who gave birth before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 611), completed an anonymous Internet survey about recent childbirth. They were assessed for childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and postpartum depression (PPD). Clinically relevant symptoms of PPD and PTSD were high before the pandemic and showed no significant change during the pandemic (p = 0.48 and p = 0.64, respectively). We found a notable increase in the frequency of obstetric violence (p = 0.015) during the pandemic, which, in turn, has a strong correlation with birth-related PTSD and PPD. The problem of ethical communication with patients among maternal healthcare professionals is acute in Russia, and it has been exacerbated by the pandemic. Family and doula support during labor can be a potential protective factor against obstetric violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Review

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Review
Prevalence of Antenatal Anxiety in European Women: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021098 - 08 Jan 2023
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The presence of anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse consequences for both mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of anxiety in European pregnant women in order to find out which countries have published the [...] Read more.
The presence of anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse consequences for both mothers and their babies. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of anxiety in European pregnant women in order to find out which countries have published the most studies in respect to the presence of anxiety during pregnancy, which countries are the most and least prevalent in terms of anxiety within pregnant women, and which are the most common tools used to assess anxiety during this stage. As such, a literature review was conducted regarding the studies that were published in the last twenty years in the PsycInfo, Medline, and SCOPUS databases. Thirty-eight studies were selected for the purposes of this review. The prevalence of anxiety in pregnancy and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) varies considerably between studies. The European countries that have carried out the most research on this issue are Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The most widely used assessment instrument is the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The lowest prevalence rate of anxiety, using the STAI-E, was found in Poland, 7.7%, and the highest was found in Italy, 36.5%. The prevalence of GAD ranges from 0.3% to 10.8%. This indicates that anxiety in pregnant women is a very relevant mental health problem. It is therefore important to detect and intervene early in order to promote the well-being of both mothers and children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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Other

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Protocol
Healthy Moms and Babies Preventive Psychological Intervention Application: A Study Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312485 - 27 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Depression is the most common psychological disorder during the perinatal period, and its negative effects extend to mothers, babies, their family and society. Scientific evidence points to the urgency of designing preventive interventions and concludes that the gestational period is the most appropriate [...] Read more.
Depression is the most common psychological disorder during the perinatal period, and its negative effects extend to mothers, babies, their family and society. Scientific evidence points to the urgency of designing preventive interventions and concludes that the gestational period is the most appropriate time to implement these interventions. However, many pregnant women do not seek professional help due to a lack of knowledge about the importance of mental health, its impact, and the available intervention options, as well as a lack of time and financial resources. E-health interventions can be an efficient, cost-effective, and accessible resource for preventing postpartum depression that can circumvent the barriers that pregnant women face. This randomized clinical trial will examine the efficacy of Healthy Moms and Babies, an app aimed at preventing postpartum depressive symptomatology. The second objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the tool in preventing anxious symptomatology. The primary outcome measure is the difference in the mean score between the intervention and control groups on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at the end of the intervention and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. The secondary outcome will be determined by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) at the same time points. The research findings can be used to determine pregnant women’s use of the e-health application for the prevention of postpartum depression, whether the Healthy Moms and Babies intervention app is an effective and useful resource, and what modifications will need to be made to the tool in future updates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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