Special Issue "Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rafael Toledo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, University of Valencia , 46010 València, Spain
Interests: intestinal helminths; trematodes; immunoparasitology; echinostomes; immune response; resistance; susceptibility; chronic infections; tropical diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Around two billion people are currently infected with one or more tropical diseases, most of them in developing countries. The term tropical disease encompasses all diseases that principally occur in the tropics, though these geographical limits are expanding in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, demographic changes and, ultimately, as a consequence of global climatic change. Tropical diseases contribute to a vast social and economic burden resulting from social shame, somatic disabilities, blindness, discrimination, malnutrition, growth failure, and impaired cognitive development. The resulting outcome of these factors perpetuates the cycle of poverty by preventing individuals from leading productive lives, thus affecting families, communities, and countries as a whole. Another factor that aggravates this situation is the tendency for many of these diseases to become chronic, exacerbated by the lack of treatments, inadequate treatments, or absence of medical attention and adequate hygienic–sanitary conditions. To address this situation, in-depth studies are needed to clarify the current epidemiology of these diseases and the changes that are occurring in addition to developing effective control tools. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high level of academic discourse coupled with provision of optimal proposals that have a practical focus. 

Prof. Dr. Rafael Toledo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • tropical diseases
  • neglected tropical diseases
  • chronic infections
  • epidemiology
  • control
  • tropics
  • climatic change

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Malaria Infection and Risk for Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115886 - 30 May 2021
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Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, [...] Read more.
Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and reference lists of publications for potentially relevant studies on malaria infection and eBL. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute for case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize whether the odds of eBL can be increased by (1) malaria infection or (2) elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen. The level of heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran’s Q statistic and I2. The individual study data, pooled odds, and confidence interval (CI) were illustrated using the forest plot. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. Results: Ten studies were included, reporting the number of malaria cases in eBL and non-eBL (5 studied malaria infection and the odds of eBL; five studied the burden of IgGs to malarial antigens and the odds of eBL). According to the meta-analysis results, the odds of eBL was not increased by malaria infection (p = 0.562, OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.54–1.39, I2: 93.5%, malaria in eBL: 604/1506 cases, malaria in non-eBL: 2117/4549 cases) and the elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen (p = 0.051, OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00–2.25, I2: 89%, increased IgG titer in eBL: 1059/1736 cases, increased IgG titer in non-eBL: 847/1722 cases). In meta-regression analysis, sex was not a confounding factor for the effect size of malaria infection and eBL (p = 0.10) and that of increased IgGs and eBL (p = 0.80). Conclusions: Malaria infection and IgG titer elevation did not increase the risk for eBL among children. However, the included studies, which are only few, do not generally agree on this point. Therefore, the risk for eBL in children diagnosed with malaria should be investigated further by longitudinal studies to confirm our evidence-based approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Plan paper 1. 

- Tentative title:

"One Health action against human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, water drinking, behavioural traditions, social aspects, and livestock management practices linked to infection sources"

- Authorship:

R. Angles1, P. Buchon2, M.D. Bargues3, M.A. Valero3, S. Mas-Coma3

- Affiliation:

1 Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Av. Saavedra, Miraflores, La Paz, Bolivia
2 Unidad de Limnología, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), La Paz, Bolivia
3 Departamento de Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain

This article will be one of the official series of the "Worldwide WHO Initiative Against Human Fascioliasis" of the World Health Organization Headquarters Geneva.
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