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Special Issue "Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2023 | Viewed by 5070

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Rafael Toledo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Parasitology, University of Valencia , 46010 València, Spain
Interests: intestinal helminths; trematodes; immunoparasitology; echinostomes; immune response; resistance; susceptibility; chronic infections; tropical diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Around two billion people are currently infected with one or more tropical diseases, most of them in developing countries. The term tropical disease encompasses all diseases that principally occur in the tropics, though these geographical limits are expanding in relation to factors such as growing international markets, improved transportation systems, demographic changes and, ultimately, as a consequence of global climatic change. Tropical diseases contribute to a vast social and economic burden resulting from social shame, somatic disabilities, blindness, discrimination, malnutrition, growth failure, and impaired cognitive development. The resulting outcome of these factors perpetuates the cycle of poverty by preventing individuals from leading productive lives, thus affecting families, communities, and countries as a whole. Another factor that aggravates this situation is the tendency for many of these diseases to become chronic, exacerbated by the lack of treatments, inadequate treatments, or absence of medical attention and adequate hygienic–sanitary conditions. To address this situation, in-depth studies are needed to clarify the current epidemiology of these diseases and the changes that are occurring in addition to developing effective control tools. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high level of academic discourse coupled with provision of optimal proposals that have a practical focus. 

Prof. Dr. Rafael Toledo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tropical diseases
  • neglected tropical diseases
  • chronic infections
  • epidemiology
  • control
  • tropics
  • climatic change

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Burden of Malaria in Sao Tome and Principe, 1990–2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214817 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors, commonly found in tropical regions, and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It causes a heavy disease burden in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), an island country in West Africa which at [...] Read more.
Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors, commonly found in tropical regions, and characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It causes a heavy disease burden in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), an island country in West Africa which at one time had a high incidence of malaria. Objective: This study aims to analyze the trend of disease burden of malaria in STP. Methods: The crude and age-standardized incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rate data of malaria were extracted from GBD 2019. Joinpoint 4.9 software was used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) and the average annual percentage change (AAPC), which were also used to indicate the change in disease burden by different stages. Results: In general, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), and age-standardized DALYs rate (ASDR) of malaria presented a decreasing trend between 1990 and 2019, with an average annual decrease of 5.6%, 6.2%, and 10.7%, respectively, in STP. Specifically, all indicators first presented an increasing trend from 1990 to about 2000, followed by a decreasing trend until 2019, although the incidence rebounded slightly after 2015. Overall, the ASIR, ASMR, and ASDR of malaria reduced by 77.08%, 87.84%, and 82.21%, respectively, in 2019 as compared to 1990. No significant differences in disease burden were found between males and females between 2005 and 2019. Children who were under 5 years old showed a relatively small decrease in the rate of DALYs as compared to other age groups, but remained the group with the highest disease burden of malaria in the country. Conclusions: The disease burden of malaria in STP showed a significant decrease between 1990 and 2019, but it will still be challenging to achieve the goal of eliminating malaria by 2025. The government and relevant authorities should aim to strengthen the prevention and surveillance of malaria and tailor population-specific interventions in order to reduce the disease burden of malaria in STP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Article
Assessing Entomological and Epidemiological Efficacy of Pyriproxyfen-Treated Ovitraps in the Reduction of Aedes Species: A Quasi-Experiment on Dengue Infection Using Saliva Samples
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19053026 - 04 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Our study assessed the impact of using ovitraps with pyriproxyfen on mosquito populations and the feasibility of using human saliva samples to test for seroconversion to dengue virus (DENV). We used a quasi-experimental research design by forming the intervention (n = 220) [...] Read more.
Our study assessed the impact of using ovitraps with pyriproxyfen on mosquito populations and the feasibility of using human saliva samples to test for seroconversion to dengue virus (DENV). We used a quasi-experimental research design by forming the intervention (n = 220) and the control (n = 223) groups in neighboring Taguig City, Philippines, over 4 months. Socio-demographic data, entomological indices, and IgG antibodies against DENV were measured. Associations between the implementation of ovitraps dosed with pyriproxyfen and mosquito densities (percentage positive ovitraps and container indices) and DENV seroconversion were calculated post-intervention in Months 2, 3, and 4. Among the participants recruited at baseline, 17 and 13 were seropositive for dengue (DENV) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Both entomological indices were lower in the treated area than the control site at post-intervention Months 2, 3, and 4, but not earlier. Dengue seroconversions rates decreased in the treated population, but not significantly so. In conclusion, the use of PPF-treated ovitraps may have impacted the mosquito population, but not seroconversion rates. Compliance in providing saliva samples and the ability to detect IgG antibodies within these samples was encouraging and suggests that further studies on larger populations for longer durations are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Article
One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health [...] Read more.
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health axis, the information obtained throughout 35 years of field work on transmission foci and affected rural schools and communities/villages is analysed. Aspects linked to human infection risk are quantified, including: (1) geographical extent of the endemic area, its dynamics, municipalities affected, and its high strategic importance; (2) human population at risk, community development and mortality rates, with emphasis on problems in infancy and gender; (3) characteristics of the freshwater collections inhabited by lymnaeid snail vectors and constituting transmission foci; (4) food infection sources, including population surveys with questionnaire and reference to the most risky edible plant species; (5) water infection sources; (6) household characteristics; (7) knowledge of the inhabitants on Fasciola hepatica and the disease; (8) behavioural, traditional, social, and religious aspects; (9) livestock management. This is the widest and deepest study of this kind ever performed. Results highlight prevention and control difficulties where inhabitants follow century-old behaviours, traditions, and beliefs. Intervention priorities are proposed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Article
Malaria Infection and Risk for Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115886 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, [...] Read more.
Background: Malaria infection is reportedly linked to endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) in malaria-endemic areas. This study aimed to pool the overall risk (or odds) of eBL among children with previous or concurrent malaria infection. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and reference lists of publications for potentially relevant studies on malaria infection and eBL. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute for case-control studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize whether the odds of eBL can be increased by (1) malaria infection or (2) elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen. The level of heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran’s Q statistic and I2. The individual study data, pooled odds, and confidence interval (CI) were illustrated using the forest plot. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. Results: Ten studies were included, reporting the number of malaria cases in eBL and non-eBL (5 studied malaria infection and the odds of eBL; five studied the burden of IgGs to malarial antigens and the odds of eBL). According to the meta-analysis results, the odds of eBL was not increased by malaria infection (p = 0.562, OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.54–1.39, I2: 93.5%, malaria in eBL: 604/1506 cases, malaria in non-eBL: 2117/4549 cases) and the elevated titer of IgGs to malaria antigen (p = 0.051, OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00–2.25, I2: 89%, increased IgG titer in eBL: 1059/1736 cases, increased IgG titer in non-eBL: 847/1722 cases). In meta-regression analysis, sex was not a confounding factor for the effect size of malaria infection and eBL (p = 0.10) and that of increased IgGs and eBL (p = 0.80). Conclusions: Malaria infection and IgG titer elevation did not increase the risk for eBL among children. However, the included studies, which are only few, do not generally agree on this point. Therefore, the risk for eBL in children diagnosed with malaria should be investigated further by longitudinal studies to confirm our evidence-based approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Burden and Risk Factors of Melioidosis in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315475 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of human melioidosis in Southeast Asia as well as to highlight knowledge gaps in the prevalence and risk factors of this life-threatening disease using available evidence-based data for better diagnosis and treatment. Preferred Reporting [...] Read more.
This scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of human melioidosis in Southeast Asia as well as to highlight knowledge gaps in the prevalence and risk factors of this life-threatening disease using available evidence-based data for better diagnosis and treatment. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) was used as the guideline for this review. The literature search was conducted on 23 March 2022 through two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) using lists of keywords referring to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus. A total of 38 articles related to human melioidosis were included from 645 screened articles. These studies were carried out between 1986 and 2019 in six Southeast Asian countries: Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Vietnam. Melioidosis has been reported with a high disease prevalence among high-risk populations. Studies in Thailand (48.0%) and Cambodia (74.4%) revealed disease prevalence in patients with septic arthritis and children with suppurative parotitis, respectively. Other studies in Thailand (63.5%) and Malaysia (54.4% and 65.7%) showed a high seroprevalence of melioidosis among Tsunami survivors and military personnel, respectively. Additionally, this review documented soil and water exposure, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, thalassemia, and children under the age of 15 as the main risk factors for melioidosis. Human melioidosis is currently under-reported in Southeast Asia and its true prevalence is unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water Drinking, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Practices Linked to Infection Sources

Authors: R. Angles 1, P. Buchon 2, M.D. Bargues 3, M.A. Valero 3, S. Mas-Coma 3

Affiliation: 1 Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Av. Saavedra, Miraflores, La Paz, Bolivia; 2 Unidad de Limnología, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), La Paz, Bolivia; 3 Departamento de Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain

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