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Article

One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources

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Cátedra de Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Av. Saavedra, Miraflores, La Paz 10077, Bolivia
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Unidad de Limnología, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Campus Calle 27, Cota Cota, La Paz 10077, Bolivia
3
Departamento de Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Av. Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jon Øyvind Odland and Rafael Toledo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120
Received: 2 December 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Infection of Tropical Diseases)
The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health axis, the information obtained throughout 35 years of field work on transmission foci and affected rural schools and communities/villages is analysed. Aspects linked to human infection risk are quantified, including: (1) geographical extent of the endemic area, its dynamics, municipalities affected, and its high strategic importance; (2) human population at risk, community development and mortality rates, with emphasis on problems in infancy and gender; (3) characteristics of the freshwater collections inhabited by lymnaeid snail vectors and constituting transmission foci; (4) food infection sources, including population surveys with questionnaire and reference to the most risky edible plant species; (5) water infection sources; (6) household characteristics; (7) knowledge of the inhabitants on Fasciola hepatica and the disease; (8) behavioural, traditional, social, and religious aspects; (9) livestock management. This is the widest and deepest study of this kind ever performed. Results highlight prevention and control difficulties where inhabitants follow century-old behaviours, traditions, and beliefs. Intervention priorities are proposed and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: human and animal fascioliasis; Northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic; One Health action; infancy and gender problems; transmission foci; food and water infection sources; household and knowledge; behavioural; traditional; social aspects; livestock management; prevention and control human and animal fascioliasis; Northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic; One Health action; infancy and gender problems; transmission foci; food and water infection sources; household and knowledge; behavioural; traditional; social aspects; livestock management; prevention and control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Angles, R.; Buchon, P.; Valero, M.A.; Bargues, M.D.; Mas-Coma, S. One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120

AMA Style

Angles R, Buchon P, Valero MA, Bargues MD, Mas-Coma S. One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(3):1120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angles, René, Paola Buchon, M. Adela Valero, M. Dolores Bargues, and Santiago Mas-Coma. 2022. "One Health Action against Human Fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano: Food, Water, Housing, Behavioural Traditions, Social Aspects, and Livestock Management Linked to Disease Transmission and Infection Sources" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 3: 1120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031120

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