Special Issue "Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mukesh M. Agarwal
Website
Guest Editor
Medical Education, California University of Science and Medicine, San Bernardino, United States
Interests: diabetes mellitus; lipids and lipoproteins; laboratory medicine

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the mild to severe glucose intolerance emerging later in pregnancy, reflects the underlying diabetes mellitus (DM) in any population. DM is a modern-day plague which kills one human every six seconds; it is an epidemic devouring 12% of the world’s health expenditure and increasing exponentially. Thus, DM is ringing alarm bells for prevention worldwide. GDM—a harbinger of impending future DM—can help to contain this impending disaster if identified, and preventive measures like lifestyle modification are applied effectively after delivery.

However, worldwide, the data on the epidemiology of gestational diabetes are incongruent. The prevalence varies from 1% to 28%, being confounded by the population ethnicity, the criteria (of the myriad available) used for diagnosis, screening methods, maternal age, weight, and socioeconomic status. An in-depth knowledge of the epidemiology of GDM in different countries and regions will help to understand the disparities and similarities facilitating international comparisons. A snapshot of the epidemiology of GDM in select countries will help us march towards our ultimate goal: decreasing maternal and fetal complications in every pregnancy and DM in the entire population worldwide.

Papers addressing the epidemiology of GDM (reviews, position papers, brief reports, commentaries) in different countries/continents are invited for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Mukesh M. Agarwal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • prevalence
  • gestational diabetes
  • criteria
  • OGTT
  • screening

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus History on Future Pregnancy Behaviors: The Mutaba’ah Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010058 - 23 Dec 2020
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in any pregnancy and recurrence rates are high in future pregnancies. This study aims to investigate the effect of self-reported history of previous GDM on behaviors in a future pregnancy. This is [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in any pregnancy and recurrence rates are high in future pregnancies. This study aims to investigate the effect of self-reported history of previous GDM on behaviors in a future pregnancy. This is an interim cross-sectional analysis of the pregnant women who participated in the Mutaba’ah Study between May 2017 and March 2020 in the United Arab Emirates. Participants completed a baseline self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic and pregnancy-related information about the current pregnancy and previous pregnancies. Regression models assessed the relationships between self-reported history of GDM and pre-pregnancy and pregnancy behaviors in the current pregnancy. Out of 5738 pregnant parous women included in this analysis, nearly 30% (n = 1684) reported a history of GDM in a previous pregnancy. Women with a history of previous GDM were less likely to plan their current pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–0.96) and more likely to be worried about childbirth (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.36). They had shorter interpregnancy intervals between their previous child and current pregnancy (aOR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.82–0.94, per SD increase). There were no significant differences between women with and without a history of GDM in supplement use, sedentary behavior, or physical activity before and during this current pregnancy. Nearly a third of parous pregnant women in this population had a history of GDM in a previous pregnancy. Pregnant women with a previous history of GDM were similar to their counterparts with no history of GDM in the adopted pre-pregnancy and prenatal health behaviors. More intensive and long-term lifestyle counseling, possibly supported by e-health and social media materials, might be required to empower pregnant women with a history of GDM. This may assist in adopting and maintaining healthy prenatal behaviors early during the pregnancy or the preconception phase to minimize the risk of GDM recurrence and the consequential adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gestational Diabetes: Overview with Emphasis on Medical Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249573 - 21 Dec 2020
Abstract
With the rising trend in obesity, the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and perinatal complications associated with the condition are also on the rise. Since the early 1900s, much knowledge has been gained about the diagnosis, implications, and management of gestational diabetes [...] Read more.
With the rising trend in obesity, the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and perinatal complications associated with the condition are also on the rise. Since the early 1900s, much knowledge has been gained about the diagnosis, implications, and management of gestational diabetes with improved outcomes for the mother and fetus. Worldwide, there is variation in the definition of GDM, methods to screen for the condition, and management options. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups has published recommendations for a one-step approach to screen pregnant women for GDM, in order to develop outcome-based criteria that can be used internationally. However, management of GDM continues to be varied, and currently several options are available for treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy. A review of various aspects of GDM is discussed with a focus on the medical management during pregnancy, as practiced in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence, Prevention, and Lifestyle Intervention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249517 - 18 Dec 2020
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become an epidemic and has caused a tremendous healthy and economic burden in China, especially after the “two-child policy” put into effect on October 2015. The prevalence of GDM has continued to increase during the past few decades [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become an epidemic and has caused a tremendous healthy and economic burden in China, especially after the “two-child policy” put into effect on October 2015. The prevalence of GDM has continued to increase during the past few decades and is likely to see a further rise in the future. The public health impact of GDM is becoming more apparent in China and it might lead to the development of chronic non-communicable diseases in the long-term for both mothers and their children. Early identification of high-risk individuals could help to take preventive and intervention measures to reduce the risk of GDM and adverse perinatal outcomes. Therefore, a focus on prevention and intervention of GDM in China is of great importance. Lifestyle interventions, including dietary and physical exercise intervention, are effective and first-line preventive strategies for GDM prevention and intervention. The GDM One-day Care Clinic established in 2011, which educates GDM patients on the basic knowledge of GDM, dietary intervention, physical exercise, weight management, and blood glucose self-monitoring methods, sets a good model for group management of GDM and has been implemented throughout the hospitals as well as maternal and child health centers in China. The current review focus on the prevalence, risk factors, as well as prevention and lifestyle intervention of GDM in China for better understanding of the latest epidemiology of GDM in China and help to improve maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes and promote long-term health for women with GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
Open AccessReview
A Review of the Current Status of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Australia—The Clinical Impact of Changing Population Demographics and Diagnostic Criteria on Prevalence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249387 - 15 Dec 2020
Abstract
The current status of gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia reveals an almost quadrupling prevalence over the last decade. A narrative review of the current Australian literature reveals unique challenges faced by Australian maternity clinicians when addressing this substantial disease burden in our diverse [...] Read more.
The current status of gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia reveals an almost quadrupling prevalence over the last decade. A narrative review of the current Australian literature reveals unique challenges faced by Australian maternity clinicians when addressing this substantial disease burden in our diverse population. Rising rates of maternal overweight and obesity, increasing maternal age and the diversity of ethnicity are key epidemiological impactors, overlaid by the 2015 changes in screening and diagnostic parameters. Our vast land mass and the remote location of many at risk women requires innovative and novel ideas for pathways to diagnose and effectively manage women with gestational diabetes mellitus. By modifying and modernizing models of care for women with gestational diabetes mellitus, we have the ability to address accessibility, resource management and our acute response to global events such as the COVID 19 pandemic. With continuing research, education and robust discourse, Australia is well placed to meet current and future challenges in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
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Open AccessReview
Intermittent Fasting, Dietary Modifications, and Exercise for the Control of Gestational Diabetes and Maternal Mood Dysregulation: A Review and a Case Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249379 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy-related condition afflicting 5–36% of pregnancies. It is associated with many morbid maternal and fetal outcomes. Mood dysregulations (MDs, e.g., depression, distress, and anxiety) are common among women with GDM, and they exacerbate its prognosis and [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy-related condition afflicting 5–36% of pregnancies. It is associated with many morbid maternal and fetal outcomes. Mood dysregulations (MDs, e.g., depression, distress, and anxiety) are common among women with GDM, and they exacerbate its prognosis and hinder its treatment. Hence, in addition to early detection and proper management of GDM, treating the associated MDs is crucial. Maternal hyperglycemia and MDs result from a complex network of genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. This review briefly explores mechanisms that underlie GDM and prenatal MDs. It also describes the effect of exercise, dietary modification, and intermittent fasting (IF) on metabolic and affective dysfunctions exemplified by a case report. In this patient, interventions such as IF considerably reduced maternal body weight, plasma glucose, and psychological distress without any adverse effects. Thus, IF is one measure that can control GDM and maternal MDs; however, more investigations are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
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Open AccessReview
Gestational Diabetes in the Arab Gulf Countries: Sitting on a Land-Mine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249270 - 11 Dec 2020
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a modern-day plague by reaching epidemic levels throughout the world. Due to its similar pathogenesis, gestational diabetes (GDM) increases in parallel to T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM (3.9–18.3%) and GDM (5.1–37.7%) in countries of the Arab [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a modern-day plague by reaching epidemic levels throughout the world. Due to its similar pathogenesis, gestational diabetes (GDM) increases in parallel to T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM (3.9–18.3%) and GDM (5.1–37.7%) in countries of the Arab Gulf are amongst the highest internationally, and they are still rising precipitously. This review traces the reasons among the Arab nations for (a) the surge of T2DM and GDM and (b) the failure to contain it. During the last five decades, the massive oil wealth in many Arab countries has led to the unhealthy lifestyle changes in physical activity and diet. The excess consumption of calories turned the advantageous genes, originally selected for the famine-like conditions, detrimental: fueling obesity and insulin resistance. Despite genetic differences in these populations, GDM—a marker for future obesity and T2DM—can overcome this scourge of T2DM through active follow-up and screening after delivery. However, the health policies of most Arab countries have fallen short. Neglecting this unique chance will miss an irreplaceable opportunity to turn the tide of the T2DM and obesity epidemic in the Middle Eastern Arab Gulf countries—as well as globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
Open AccessReview
Intimate Partner Violence: A Risk Factor for Gestational Diabetes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217843 - 26 Oct 2020
Abstract
The early detection and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important public health goal. GDM, which is defined as a glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy, affects about 14% of pregnancies globally, and without effective treatment, it is associated with adverse [...] Read more.
The early detection and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important public health goal. GDM, which is defined as a glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy, affects about 14% of pregnancies globally, and without effective treatment, it is associated with adverse short- and long-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. Risk-factor screening is an acceptable and affordable strategy to enable risk stratification and intervention. However, common biological risk factors such as overweight or obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and family history of diabetes often have poor predictive ability, failing to identify a large proportion of women at risk of developing GDM. Accumulating evidence implicate psychosocial factors in contributing to GDM risk. As such, intimate partner violence (IPV), through its contributing effects on maternal stress and depression, presents a plausible risk factor for GDM. Experiencing IPV during pregnancy may dysregulate the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to increased cortisol secretion and insulin resistance. These effects may exacerbate the insulin-resistant environment characteristic of pregnancy, thus increasing GDM risk. This review explores the relationship between IPV and GDM. We highlight studies that have linked IPV with GDM and propose a biological mechanism that connects IPV and GDM. Recommendations for IPV screening strategies to prevent GDM are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gestational Diabetes: Epidemiology around the World)
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