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Special Issue "Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 32296

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Costas Varotsos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, Bld Phys 5, Ilissia (Zografou), 157 84 Athens, Greece
Interests: climate dynamics; remote sensing; natural disasters; air pollution; environmental physics and chemistry; applied ecology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Stanislav Szabo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dean of Faculty of Aeronautics, Technical University of Košice, Rampová 7, 041 21 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: aeronautics education; air traffic management; operation and economy of air transport; security management in air transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The problem of the impact of aviation on our everyday life can be solved in the context of modeling the environmental response to rising air pollutants due to increasing air traffic. New approaches and advanced technologies can be developed and employed to understand the role of aviation emissions in the climate change response, taking into account existing emission trends. Current research activities focus on the development of effective information tools based on physical/chemical understanding and modeling the qualitative and quantitative assessment of air pollutants and their impact on the environment and public health. It is assumed that these modeling results will be supported by measuring the absorption and radiative properties (single particle albedo and multi-particle scattering from in-situ measurements) of soot/nitric acid/water particles emitted at high and low altitudes, and/or by ground-based measurements at airports.

“Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health” is the thematic topic of this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph). It is organised on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of aviation education in Košice, Slovak Republic (1959–2019), in the framework of the United Nations Agenda for the Sustainable Development (2030), which supports the spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals focused on Goal 4 Quality Education and Goal 13 Climate Action.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to climate change research, environmental research, aerospace research, the impact of aviation, aviation education, and air traffic management. The keywords listed suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Costas Varotsos
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Stanislav Szabo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change and air pollution research
  • experimental approach of aviation’s environmental impact
  • theoretical-model approach of aviation’s environmental impact
  • ecoinformatics and climate system
  • aviation education and training
  • air traffic management and control
  • enviro-security factors and environmental start-ups for the air transport sector
  • measurements from remotely-sensed data and ground stations
  • meterorological data and climate change scenarios
  • photogrammetry for environmental research and GIS
  • environmental issues of the greater areas of airports―public health problems

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Article
Improving Aviation Safety through Modeling Accident Risk Assessment of Runway
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176085 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
The exponential increase in aviation activity and air traffic in recent decades has raised several public health issues. One of the critical public health concerns is runway safety and the increasing demand for airports without accidents. In addition to threatening human lives, runway [...] Read more.
The exponential increase in aviation activity and air traffic in recent decades has raised several public health issues. One of the critical public health concerns is runway safety and the increasing demand for airports without accidents. In addition to threatening human lives, runway accidents are often associated with severe environmental and pollution consequences. In this study, a three-step approach is used for runway risk assessment considering probability, location, and consequences of accidents through advanced statistical methods. This study proposes novel models for the implementation of these three steps in Iran. Data on runway excursion accidents were collected from several countries with similar air accident rates. The proposed models empower engineers to advance an accurate assessment of the accident probability and safety assessment of airports. For in-service airports, it is possible to assess existing runways to remove obstacles close to runways if necessary. Also, the proposed models can be used for preliminary evaluations of developing existing airports and the construction of new runways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Evaluating the Mutual Relationship between IPAT/Kaya Identity Index and ODIAC-Based GOSAT Fossil-Fuel CO2 Flux: Potential and Constraints in Utilizing Decomposed Variables
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165976 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The IPAT/Kaya identity is the most popular index used to analyze the driving forces of individual factors on CO2 emissions. It represents the CO2 emissions as a product of factors, such as the population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, energy [...] Read more.
The IPAT/Kaya identity is the most popular index used to analyze the driving forces of individual factors on CO2 emissions. It represents the CO2 emissions as a product of factors, such as the population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, energy intensity of the GDP, and carbon footprint of energy. In this study, we evaluated the mutual relationship of the factors of the IPAT/Kaya identity and their decomposed variables with the fossil-fuel CO2 flux, as measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). We built two regression models to explain this flux; one using the IPAT/Kaya identity factors as the explanatory variables and the other one using their decomposed factors. The factors of the IPAT/Kaya identity have less explanatory power than their decomposed variables and comparably low correlation with the fossil-fuel CO2 flux. However, the model using the decomposed variables shows significant multicollinearity. We performed a multivariate cluster analysis for further investigating the benefits of using the decomposed variables instead of the original factors. The results of the cluster analysis showed that except for the M factor, the IPAT/Kaya identity factors are inadequate for explaining the variations in the fossil-fuel CO2 flux, whereas the decomposed variables produce reasonable clusters that can help identify the relevant drivers of this flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Qualitative Approach to Environmental Risk Assessment in Transport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155494 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a qualitative approach to environmental risk assessment (QAERA) in transport. The approach is described as a model developed for the future software tool which will be utilizable as a risk decision support [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a qualitative approach to environmental risk assessment (QAERA) in transport. The approach is described as a model developed for the future software tool which will be utilizable as a risk decision support system. The basic part is aimed on developing a quantitative environmental risk assessment. Thus, this paper describes a set of 6 pillars of safety and security. Accordingly, the paper contains both chosen safety and security indicators and selected criteria for assessing the risk of launching the environmental change of global model thinking in the transport sector. The environmental risk assessment as a global model of thinking was originally based on historical experience but, nowadays, it is changing. Based on new expert knowledge, more precisely, on input of new global data, paper displays an environmental risk assessment with actual interpretation. The discussion of the paper is oriented to support research results, a new knowledge-oriented approach to global climate changes, using suitable risk assessment methods and technics. The result of the paper is a new approach for the modeling of environmental risk assessment in the transport sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Study of the Percentage of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation in the EU-27 Countries by Applying Multiple-Criteria Statistical Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113759 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
The transport sector, including air transport, represents an important source of air pollution. The present article deals with the current situation regarding greenhouse gas emissions in the air in 27 European Union (EU-27) member states. Every member state is characterized by selected parameters [...] Read more.
The transport sector, including air transport, represents an important source of air pollution. The present article deals with the current situation regarding greenhouse gas emissions in the air in 27 European Union (EU-27) member states. Every member state is characterized by selected parameters that determine the unique nature of a particular country (e.g., population, area, life expectancy, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, etc.). In addition to these parameters, there were also other parameters which were monitored as they characterize the amount of greenhouse gas emissions and the impact of aviation on these emissions. The main purpose of the article is to compare the European Union member states on the basis of 15 examined parameters. The identification of similarities between the EU-27 member states with regard to the selected parameters was carried out by applying principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. The average linkage method was applied to create a dendrogram representing the similarities between the examined member states. The value of the cophenetic correlation coefficient CC = 0.923 confirmed the correct application of the average linkage method. The cluster analysis outputs were five similarity-based homogeneous groups (clusters) into which the 27 member states were divided on the basis of the examined variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Fire Characteristics of Upholstery Materials in Seats
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093341 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
The article deals with selected upholstery flammability test materials that, in the case of fire, can cause fire spread. For the research, frequently used materials for upholstery based on polyester were utilized: imitation leather, suede, and microplush. Initiation of initiating spontaneous flammability with [...] Read more.
The article deals with selected upholstery flammability test materials that, in the case of fire, can cause fire spread. For the research, frequently used materials for upholstery based on polyester were utilized: imitation leather, suede, and microplush. Initiation of initiating spontaneous flammability with various sources of ignition were measured including a smoldering cigarette and a match flame. Results were measured as smoldering time and length of the burnt-though sample. Upholstery materials are an integral part of seat construction. To be used in transport, upholstered material must meet safety measures such as the strength, sanitariness, and fire resistance. All tests were performed in accordance with applicable technical standards. Impact assessment of the sample (weight) on “smoldering time” and “length of degradation” was carried out using an ANOVA. Significant differences in length of degradation was observed between samples. Tests cannot provide reliable information about the flammability course of the final product. Upholstery is composed of external covering, of inner liner, and padding. Results of the research presented in this paper indicate the need to continue the research in a broader aspect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Research on Energy Management of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Improve Energy-Saving and Emission Reduction Performance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082917 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The rapid development of industry results in large energy consumption and a negative impact on the environment. Pollution of the environment caused by conventional energy sources such as petrol leads to increased demand for propulsion systems with higher efficiency and capable of energy-saving [...] Read more.
The rapid development of industry results in large energy consumption and a negative impact on the environment. Pollution of the environment caused by conventional energy sources such as petrol leads to increased demand for propulsion systems with higher efficiency and capable of energy-saving and emission reduction. The usage of hybrid technology is expected to improve energy conversion efficiency, reduce energy consumption and environmental pollution. In this paper, the simulation platform for the hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been built by establishing the subsystem models of the UAV power system. Under the two chosen working conditions, the conventional cruise flight mission and the terrain tracking mission, the power tracking control and Q-Learning method have been used to design the energy management controller for the hybrid UAV. The fuel consumption and pollutant emissions under each working condition were calculated. The results show that the hybrid system can improve the efficiency of the UAV system, reduce the fuel consumption of the UAV, and so reduce the emissions of CO2, NOx, and other pollutants. This contributes to improving of environmental quality, energy-saving, and emission reduction, thereby contributing to the sustainable development of aviation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
APCI Evaluation Method for Cement Concrete Airport Pavements in the Scope of Air Operation Safety and Air Transport Participants Life
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051663 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Many factors have an impact on flight operation safety and air transport participants life. This article presents one of them, which is maintenance of the airport infrastructure in a good condition, with proper infrastructure management, in particular of cash and human resources. At [...] Read more.
Many factors have an impact on flight operation safety and air transport participants life. This article presents one of them, which is maintenance of the airport infrastructure in a good condition, with proper infrastructure management, in particular of cash and human resources. At the beginning of the article, attention is paid to the aspect of safety and human life in air transport. Also, an overview of world experience in the field of assessment of the technical condition of airport pavements was presented, including the standard method of the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) estimation. Then, the authors propose an innovative method of assessing the condition of airport pavements based on the Airfield Pavement Condition Index (APCI), taking into account, apart from the extent of surface damage, such parameters as load capacity, evenness, roughness, and bond strength. This approach gives a broader picture of the actual condition of the airport pavement, which has a great importance on flight operation safety, including passengers and cruel life. Next the described research method is experimentally verified in real conditions at Polish airports. Finally, an example of using the APCI method in the assessment of selected airport pavements from Polish airports is presented. The results of tests performed on five functional elements of a military airfield are presented. A satisfactory result is obtained for three elements, an adequate—for two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Selected Aspects of Navigation System Synthesis for Increased Flight Safety, Protection of Human Lives, and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051550 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Accurate navigation systems allow us to optimize the trajectory of flying objects and thus solve environmental problems in aviation and their impact on public health. In this paper, we present one of the methods of assessment of accuracy and resistance to interference of [...] Read more.
Accurate navigation systems allow us to optimize the trajectory of flying objects and thus solve environmental problems in aviation and their impact on public health. In this paper, we present one of the methods of assessment of accuracy and resistance to interference of distance-measuring equipment (DME). By using computer technology, the method enables us to determine the potential but also the real error measuring the distance of the flying object from DME. The credibility of the respective results of the solution on the task of DME optimal rangefinder synthesis depends on the accuracy of the previous data used, i.e., mathematical models of the respective flying objects flight dynamics, useful signals, and their parameters and interference. DME systems have an impact on air transport safety, and therefore the impact of interference on their operation must be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Reducing the Negative Environmental Impact of Winter Airport Maintenance through Its Model Design and Simulation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041296 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Airports are one of the segments within air transport and their serviceability ensures air transport efficiency. However, airports are among the largest contributors to the negative environmental impact of this kind of transport. Individual activities at airports leave a negative environmental footprint. By [...] Read more.
Airports are one of the segments within air transport and their serviceability ensures air transport efficiency. However, airports are among the largest contributors to the negative environmental impact of this kind of transport. Individual activities at airports leave a negative environmental footprint. By optimizing processes, it is possible to reduce the negative environmental impacts of these subjects. Airport winter maintenance is one of the important activities accompanying airports in geographical areas where winter season is expected due to the climate zone and weather conditions. Effective winter maintenance ensures optimal airport operation and has a significant impact on safety. However, the winter maintenance of the airport causes an excessive burden on the environment around the airports, in particular by applying de-icing agents to aircraft and movement areas, or by emissions and noise caused by equipment for snow and ice removal. The aim of the present article is to optimize the winter maintenance of the airport, namely the deployment of winter maintenance equipment with respect to meteorological conditions while maintaining the priorities for winter maintenance between individual airport areas. The aim of optimization is to achieve the saving of maintenance time and reduce the negative environmental impact of winter maintenance by effectively deploying equipment and devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
Article
Assessing the Contribution of Data Mining Methods to Avoid Aircraft Run-Off from the Runway to Increase the Safety and Reduce the Negative Environmental Impacts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030796 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
The Single Europe Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) program develops and implements innovative technological and operational solutions to modernize European air traffic management and to eliminate the negative environmental impacts of aviation activity. This article presents our developments within the SESAR Solution [...] Read more.
The Single Europe Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) program develops and implements innovative technological and operational solutions to modernize European air traffic management and to eliminate the negative environmental impacts of aviation activity. This article presents our developments within the SESAR Solution “Safety Support Tools for Avoiding Runway Excursions”. This SESAR Solution aims to mitigate the risk of runway excursion, to optimize airport operation management by decreasing the number of runway inspections, to make chemical treatment effective with respect to the environment, and to increase resilience, efficiency and safety in adverse weather situations. The proposed approach is based on the enhancement of runway surface condition awareness by integrating data from various sources. Dangerous windy conditions based on Lidar measurements are also discussed as another relevant factor in relation to runway excursions. The paper aims to explore four different data mining methods to obtain runway conditions from the available input data sources, examines their performance and discusses their pros and cons in comparison with a rule-based algorithm approach. The output of the SESAR Solution is developed in compliance with the new Global Reporting Format of the International Civil Aviation Organization for runway condition description to be valid from 2020. This standard is expected to provide concerned stakeholders with more precise information to enhance flight safety and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Fire Size of Gasoline Pool Fires
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020411 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
This article presents an experimental investigation of the flame characteristics of the gasoline pool fire. A series of experiments with different pool sizes and mixture contents were conducted to study the combustion behavior of pool fires in atmospheric conditions. The initial pool area [...] Read more.
This article presents an experimental investigation of the flame characteristics of the gasoline pool fire. A series of experiments with different pool sizes and mixture contents were conducted to study the combustion behavior of pool fires in atmospheric conditions. The initial pool area of 0.25 m2, 0.66 m2, and 2.8 m2, the initial volume of fuel and time of burning process, and the initial gasoline thickness of 20 mm were determined in each experiment. The fire models are defined by the European standard EN 3 and were used to model fire of the class MB (model liquid fire for the fire area 0.25 m2), of the class 21B (model liquid fire for the fire area 0.66 m2), and 89B (model liquid fire for the fire area 2.8 m2). The fire models were used to class 21B and 89B for fuel by Standard EN 3. The flame geometrical characteristics were recorded by a CCD (charge-coupled device) digital camera. The results show turbulent flame with constant loss burning rate per area, different flame height, and different heat release rate. Regression rate increases linearly with increasing pans diameter. The results show a linear dependence of the HRR (heat release rate) depending on the fire area (average 2.6 times). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Selected Aspects of Using the Telemetry Method in Synthesis of RelNav System for Air Traffic Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010213 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Accuracy is an important factor in air traffic management which is why high requirements are necessary for each navigation system. The aim of this article is to describe the principles of the RelNav system and telemetry and their accuracy. We present the algorithms [...] Read more.
Accuracy is an important factor in air traffic management which is why high requirements are necessary for each navigation system. The aim of this article is to describe the principles of the RelNav system and telemetry and their accuracy. We present the algorithms of the relative navigation system, which could be used for air traffic control in the case of the unavailability of satellite navigation system signals. This article sums up the different positioning methods, and deals with the accuracy of the relative navigation system (RelNav). Furthermore, the article considers the factors that influence the positioning accuracy. For this task, a computer simulation was created to evaluate the accuracy of the telemetric method. Next, we discuss the principles of telemetry and algorithms for calculating the position of the flying object (FO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Monitoring of Low-Level Wind Shear by Ground-based 3D Lidar for Increased Flight Safety, Protection of Human Lives and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224584 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Low-level wind shear, i.e., sudden changes in wind speed and/or wind direction up to altitudes of 1600 ft (500 m) above-ground is a hazardous meteorological phenomenon in aviation. It may radically change the aerodynamic circumstances of the flight, particularly during landing and take-off [...] Read more.
Low-level wind shear, i.e., sudden changes in wind speed and/or wind direction up to altitudes of 1600 ft (500 m) above-ground is a hazardous meteorological phenomenon in aviation. It may radically change the aerodynamic circumstances of the flight, particularly during landing and take-off and consequently, it may threaten human lives and the health of passengers, people at the airport and its surrounding areas. The Bratislava Airport, the site of this case study, is one of the few airports worldwide and the first in Central Europe that is equipped with a Doppler lidar system, a perspective remote sensing tool for detecting low-level wind shear. The main objective of this paper was to assess the weather events collected over a period of one year with the occurrences of low-level wind shear situations, such as vertical discontinuities in the wind field, frontal passages and gust fronts to increase the level of flight safety and protect human lives and health. The lidar data were processed by a computer algorithm with the main focus on potential wind shear alerts and microburst alerts, guided by the recommendations of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. In parallel, the selected weather events were analyzed by the nearby located meteorological radar to utilize the strengths of both approaches. Additionally, an evaluation of the lidar capability to scan dynamics of aerosol content above the airport is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Effect of Topographic Data Accuracy on Watershed Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4245; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214245 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain’s surface. There are many methods to create DEM such as LiDAR, stereo photogrammetry and topographic maps. DEMs are very important for many applications such as extracting terrain parameters [...] Read more.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrain’s surface. There are many methods to create DEM such as LiDAR, stereo photogrammetry and topographic maps. DEMs are very important for many applications such as extracting terrain parameters for geomorphology and modeling water flow for hydrology or mass movement. A number of websites are available to provide DEM such as SRTM, GTOPO30 and ASTER GDEM but their accuracy differs from one to another and also selecting a small DEM size (high resolution) gives accurate information, but the analysis takes long time. This paper aims to analyze the impact of using different available DEMs on watershed geomorphological properties on order to provide guidelines for users to select the most suitable DEM that obtain an accurate analysis in less time. Three programs; watershed modeling systems: WMS, Global Mapper and Google Earth were used in this study. Three case studies were studied to check the accuracy of these models and select the most accurate one for application. Satellite images downloaded from Google Earth were used as a guide reference for the comparison due to their accuracy and high resolution. The results indicated that the SRTM model was more accurate (95%) for all case studies according to our comparison between its delineation and satellite images. ASTER GDEM is the second most accurate model with an accuracy of 87%, the GTOPO30’s accuracy is 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Future Temperature Extremes Will Be More Harmful: A New Critical Factor for Improved Forecasts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204015 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
There is increasing evidence that extreme weather events such as frequent and intense cold spells and heat waves cause unprecedented deaths and diseases in both developed and developing countries. Thus, they require extensive and immediate research to limit the risks involved. Average temperatures [...] Read more.
There is increasing evidence that extreme weather events such as frequent and intense cold spells and heat waves cause unprecedented deaths and diseases in both developed and developing countries. Thus, they require extensive and immediate research to limit the risks involved. Average temperatures in Europe in June–July 2019 were the hottest ever measured and attributed to climate change. The problem, however, of a thorough study of natural climate change is the lack of experimental data from the long past, where anthropogenic activity was then very limited. Today, this problem can be successfully resolved using, inter alia, biological indicators that have provided reliable environmental information for thousands of years in the past. The present study used high-resolution quantitative reconstruction data derived from biological records of Lake Silvaplana sediments covering the period 1181–1945. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a slight temperature change in the past could trigger current or future intense temperature change or changes. Modern analytical tools were used for this purpose, which eventually showed that temperature fluctuations were persistent. That is, they exhibit long memory with scaling behavior, which means that an increase (decrease) in temperature in the past was always followed by another increase (decrease) in the future with multiple amplitudes. Therefore, the increase in the frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme temperature events due to climate change will be more pronounced than expected. This will affect human well-being and mortality more than that estimated in today’s modeling scenarios. The scaling property detected here can be used for more accurate monthly to decadal forecasting of extreme temperature events. Thus, it is possible to develop improved early warning systems that will reduce the public health risk at local, national, and international levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Environmental Impact of Burning Composite Materials Used in Aircraft Construction on the Air
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204008 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
The negative impact of air incidents and emergency situations results from the leakage of liquids into the soil and water and the leakage of flue gases and combustion products of aircraft structural materials into the air during fires. This article deals with air [...] Read more.
The negative impact of air incidents and emergency situations results from the leakage of liquids into the soil and water and the leakage of flue gases and combustion products of aircraft structural materials into the air during fires. This article deals with air pollution caused by the combustion of composite materials commonly used in general aviation. Samples of composite materials of aircraft registered in the Czech Republic were selected. These samples of composite materials were tested for flammability, according to ISO 5660-1:2002 Reaction to fire tests—Heat Release, smoke production and mass loss rate (ISO—International Organization for Standardization). Total smoke release and total oxygen consumed were assessed in this study, both of which have a significant impact on air quality in the case of an air incident. Based on the results of the research, differences resulting from the diversity of the structures of the tested composite materials were found. The most hazardous composite material was evaluated from the point of view of its impact on air quality during combustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
Fuzzy Model for Quantitative Assessment of Environmental Start-up Projects in Air Transport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193585 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 1845 | Correction
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to develop an applied fuzzy model of information technology to obtain quantitative estimates of environmental start-up projects in air transport. The developed model will become a useful tool for venture funds, business angels, or crowdfunding platforms for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an applied fuzzy model of information technology to obtain quantitative estimates of environmental start-up projects in air transport. The developed model will become a useful tool for venture funds, business angels, or crowdfunding platforms for the development of innovative air transport businesses. Obtaining a quantitative estimate of the environmental start-up projects will increase the sustainability of the decision making on the security of financing of such projects by investors. This article develops a fuzzy evaluation model of project start-ups in air transport as an application of our neuro-fuzzy model in a specific air transport environment. The applied model provides output ranking of start-up project teams in air transport based on a four-layer neuro-fuzzy network. The presented model declares the possibilities of the application to solve these economic problems and offers the space for subsequent research focused on its usability in several areas of start-up development, in sectors and processes differentiated. The benefits are also visible for several types of policies, with an emphasis on decision-making processes in regulatory mechanisms to support the state funding in Slovakia, the EU etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Article
A Fuzzy Model of Risk Assessment for Environmental Start-Up Projects in the Air Transport Sector
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193573 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 2083 | Correction
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to develop a fuzzy model of the risk assessment for environmental start-up projects in the air transport sector at the stage of business expansion. The model developed for the following software will be a useful tool for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a fuzzy model of the risk assessment for environmental start-up projects in the air transport sector at the stage of business expansion. The model developed for the following software will be a useful tool for the risk decision support system of investment funds in financing environmental start-up projects at the stage of market conquest. Developing a quantitative risk assessment for environmental start-up projects for the air transport sector will increase the resilience of making risk decisions about their financing by the investors. In this paper, a set of 21 criteria for assessing the risk of launching environmental start-up projects in the air transport sector were formulated for the first time by presenting inputs in the form of a linguistic risk assessment and the number of credible expert considerations. The fuzzy risk assessment model, based on expert knowledge, uses linguistic variables, reveals the uncertainty of the input data, and displays a risk assessment with linguistic interpretation. The result of the paper is a fuzzy model that is embedded in a generalized algorithm and tested in an example risk assessment of environmental start-up projects in the air transport sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)

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Case Report
Patterns of Interdependence between Financial Development, Fiscal Instruments, and Environmental Degradation in Developed and Converging EU Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124425 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Environmental risks, in particular climate change and environmental pollution, are among the key challenges faced by modern governments nowadays. Environmental risks are associated with specific costs and expenditures necessary to mitigate their negative effects. In this context, the financial system plays a significant [...] Read more.
Environmental risks, in particular climate change and environmental pollution, are among the key challenges faced by modern governments nowadays. Environmental risks are associated with specific costs and expenditures necessary to mitigate their negative effects. In this context, the financial system plays a significant role, particularly the public financial system, which allocates and redistributes public resources and has an impact on market participants by imposing environmental taxes. This study assessed the interdependence between environmental degradation and public expenditure, financial sector development, environmental taxes, and related socioeconomic policies. The aim was to diagnose and define the relationship between environmental degradation and sustainable fiscal instruments used in the financial system. The original research approach adopted in the study is the inclusion of variables representing a sustainable approach to assessment of the financial system. Two groups of European Union countries were analyzed for the period 2008–2017, namely, converging economies from Central and Eastern Europe and the largest developed economies of Western Europe. The authors found a strong relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and fiscal instruments, especially expenditure on research and development, and the development of the financial sector. In the case of environmental taxes, their impact differed depending on the country, being predominantly beneficial in countries with higher greenhouse gas emissions but unfavorable in countries with lower emissions levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
Erratum
Erratum: Future Temperature Extremes Will Be More Harmful: A New Critical Factor for Improved Forecasts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093288 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
The authors would like to correct the names and surnames of both authors of their previous paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
Case Report
Assessment of the Variability of Many Years of Thunderstorm Activity in the Aspect of Potential Threats to Aircraft at Selected Airports in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010144 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
The article presents an assessment of the long-term variability of storm activity in the aspect of potential threats to aircraft. The analysis of data from the period 1970–2018 was conducted for selected airports in Poland: Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, IATA code: GDN, ICAO [...] Read more.
The article presents an assessment of the long-term variability of storm activity in the aspect of potential threats to aircraft. The analysis of data from the period 1970–2018 was conducted for selected airports in Poland: Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, IATA code: GDN, ICAO code: EPGD (54°22′39″N 18°27′59″E, altitude above sea level 149 m above sea level); Solidarity Szczecin- Goleniow Airport, IATA code: SZZ, ICAO code: EPSC (53°35′05″ N 14°54′08″ E, altitude above sea level 47 m above sea level); Poznań-Ławica Henryk Wieniawski Airport, IATA code: POZ, ICAO code: EPPO (52°25′16″ N 16°49′35″ E, altitude above sea level 94 m above sea level); Warsaw Chopin Airport, IATA code: WAW, ICAO code: EPWA (52°09′57″ N 20°58′02″ E, altitude above sea level 110 m above sea level); Copernicus Airport Wrocław, IATA code: WRO, ICAO code: EPWR (51°06′10″ N 16°53′10″ E, altitude above sea level 123 m above sea level); John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice, IATA code: KRK, ICAO code: EPKK (50°04′40″ N 19°47′06″ E, altitude above sea level 241 m above sea level). The purpose of this paper is to assess the long-term variability of storm activity in the aspect of potential threats to air operations in Poland with the examples of six selected airports. In order to achieve the goal, an analysis of the frequency of storm phenomena in Poland was carried out both in annual and long- term terms. The analysis will allow the assessment of the geographical diversity of the distribution of storm phenomena and their variability in the years 1970–2018. The next stage of the work will be to determine the climatic conditions that exert the greatest impact on the formation of storms. The important factors include atmospheric circulation, which, over the Polish territory, is shaped by the influence of air masses from the Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic Sea and in addition, from the vast continental area. All these air masses clash over the area of Poland causing large variability in the frequency of occurrence of hazardous atmospheric phenomena. For this reason, the Polish climate is defined as a moderate warm climate with transitory features. The important factors affecting regional diversity are local conditions, such as terrain, nature of the land, and distance from water reservoirs. The thermal, humidity and aerodynamic properties of the substrate, which are components of radiation processes, determine the exchange of energy at the interface between the atmosphere and the earth, and largely determine the intensity of selected hazardous atmospheric phenomena. Each occurrence of a storm is a potentially dangerous meteorological event that threatens the environment and human activities, including all types of transport. The studied phenomenon of storms is particularly dangerous for air transport. Literature shows that storm phenomena in Poland are characterized by a large regional diversity, both during the year and over many years. The greatest threat of storm phenomena occurs in the warm period of the year—spring and summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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Correction
Correction: Fuzzy Model for Quantitative Assessment of Environmental Start-up Projects in Air Transport. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3585
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245011 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The authors wish to add the following data corrections to the coauthors listed, because of the updated data for their paper published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
Correction
Correction: A Fuzzy Model of Risk Assessment for Environmental Start-Up Projects in the Air Transport Sector. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3573
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234850 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Issues in Aerospace and their Impact on Public Health)
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