Special Issue "Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Roberta Ferrentino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical, University of Trento, 77 - 38123 Trento, Italy
Interests: biological nutrient removal; environmental engineering; excess sludge reduction in wastewater treatment plants membrane bioreactors; pollution; sanitary engineering; solid waste disposal; wastewater treatment; wastewater treatment plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment is the most used biological process for urban wastewater performed to obtain an efficient carbon and nitrogen removal and meet the regulatory requirements. However, the CAS process is generally designed to achieve nitrification and denitrification in two separated sludge system making it a non-energy efficient treatment. Moreover, this technology produces a large amount of excess sludge that needs to be treated and disposed thus creating both an environmental and economical problem. Therefore, there is a growing interest in technologies capable to reduce the overall energy consumption of the plant and to reduce the production of sludge also allowing a recovery of resources.

This special issue aims to address the current pressing problems of energy efficiency of wastewater treatment plants, sludge reduction and valorization of wastes with a possible recovery of resources. Paper are invited that investigate innovative treatment options in urban wastewater treatment engineering and sludge reduction technologies underlighting the latest scientific developments.

Dr. Roberta Ferrentino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Innovative wastewater treatments
  • Biological treatment
  • Energy efficient wastewater treatment
  • Innovative sludge reduction processes
  • Advances in anaerobic digestion
  • Mechanical treatment of sludge
  • Biogas production
  • Sludge valorization
  • Resource recovery

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Adjusting the S2O32−/NO3 Ratio to Adapt to Dynamic Influents in Coupled Anammox and Denitrification Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072200 (registering DOI) - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
In this study, anammox, sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification, and heterotrophic denitrification (A/SAD/HD) were coupled in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor to explore the feasibility of enhancing denitrification performance by adjusting the S2O32−/NO3 (S/N) ratio to [...] Read more.
In this study, anammox, sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification, and heterotrophic denitrification (A/SAD/HD) were coupled in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor to explore the feasibility of enhancing denitrification performance by adjusting the S2O32−/NO3 (S/N) ratio to accommodate dynamic influents. The results indicated that the optimal influent conditions occurred when the conversion efficiency of ammonium (CEA) was 55%, the S/N ratio was 1.24, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 50 mg/L, which resulted in a total nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 95.0% ± 0.5%. The S/N ratio regulation strategy was feasible when the influent COD concentration was less than 100 mg/L and the CEA was between 57% and 63%. Characterization by 16S rRNA sequencing showed that Candidatus Jettenia might have contributed the most to anammox, while Thiobacillus and Denitratisoma were the dominant taxa related to denitrification. The findings of this study provide insights into the effects of CEA and COD on the performance of the A/SAD/HD system and the feasibility of the S/N ratio regulation strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of As(V) from Aqueous Solution on Chitosan-Modified Diatomite
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020429 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
A novel chitosan (CS)-modified diatomite (Dt) was prepared by a simple mixture in the mass ratio to remove As(V) from aqueous solution in this research. The CS-modified Dt adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder [...] Read more.
A novel chitosan (CS)-modified diatomite (Dt) was prepared by a simple mixture in the mass ratio to remove As(V) from aqueous solution in this research. The CS-modified Dt adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The parameters to influence the adsorption of As(V) ion were studied under such conditions as kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and pH effect. The results revealed that adsorption of As(V) was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was reached after 40 min. The optimal value of the pH was 5.0 for better adsorption. The equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm compared to the Freundlich isotherm, and exhibited the highest capacity and removal efficiency of 94.3% under an initial As(V) concentration of 5 mg/L. The kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order model. In addition, 0.1 M NaOH has the best desorption efficiency of As(V) adsorbed on CS-modified Dt, and the removal efficiency of As(V) was still higher than 90% when after six adsorption-desorption cycles. These results showed that the CS-modified Dt could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of As(V) in aqueous solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Preparation of Chitosan-Crosslinked Bismuth Ferrite/Biochar Coupled Magnetic Material for Methylene Blue Removal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010006 - 18 Dec 2019
Abstract
Biochar obtained by pyrolysis of the fiber plant kenaf was mixed with bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) in a chitosan-containing acetic acid solution, magnetized, and modified to prepare a chitosan-crosslinked BiFeO3/biochar coupled magnetic material. The adsorption properties of the composite were [...] Read more.
Biochar obtained by pyrolysis of the fiber plant kenaf was mixed with bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) in a chitosan-containing acetic acid solution, magnetized, and modified to prepare a chitosan-crosslinked BiFeO3/biochar coupled magnetic material. The adsorption properties of the composite were investigated using methylene blue dissolved in water, and the effects of external conditions, such as pH, methylene blue concentration, reaction time, and temperature, on the adsorption performance were studied. The adsorption data were fitted and analyzed with kinetic and isotherm models, and the results showed that the BiFeO3/biochar coupled magnetic material effectively adsorbed methylene blue. The amounts adsorbed onto this magnetic material increased with increasing initial methylene blue concentration, reaction time, and temperature, and the adsorption performance improved under neutral and alkaline conditions. The pseudo-first-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models satisfactorily fitted the adsorption data, showing that the adsorption of methylene blue involved both chemical and physical adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue onto the BiFeO3/biochar coupled magnetic material reached 18.942 mg·g−1 at 25 °C, confirming the excellent dye binding activity of this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrogen Removal from Domestic Wastewater and the Development of Tropical Ornamental Plants in Partially Saturated Mesocosm-Scale Constructed Wetlands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234800 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
Vertical partially saturated (VPS) constructed wetlands (CWs) are a novel wastewater treatment system for which little information is known about its design parameters and performance under tropical climates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nitrogen removal process from domestic wastewater [...] Read more.
Vertical partially saturated (VPS) constructed wetlands (CWs) are a novel wastewater treatment system for which little information is known about its design parameters and performance under tropical climates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nitrogen removal process from domestic wastewater and the production of tropical ornamental plants (Canna hybrids and Zantedeschia aethiopica) in VPS CWs at a mesocosms scale. Nine VPS CWs, with a free-flow zone of 16 cm and a saturated zone of 16 cm, were used as experimental units. Three units were planted with Canna hybrids., and three, with Zantedeschia aethiopica (one plant per unit); the remaining three units were established as controls without vegetation. They were fed with domestic wastewater intermittently and evaluated for the elimination of COD, N-NH4, N-NO3, Norg, NT, and PT. The results showed an increase in the removal for some pollutants in the vegetated systems, i.e., N-NH4 (35%), Norg (16%), TN (25%), and TP (47%) in comparison to the unvegetated systems. While N-NO3 removal showed better removal in 10% of the systems without vegetation, no significant differences were found (p > 0.05) for COD removal. The aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the VPS CWs favor the elimination of pollutants in the systems, and also the development of the tropical species evaluated in this study; good development was exhibited by a high growth rate and biomass production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Application of the Anammox in China—A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031090 - 09 Feb 2020
Abstract
Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) has been one of the most innovative discoveries for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The process has significant advantages for energy saving and sludge reduction, also capital costs and greenhouse gases emissions are reduced. Recently, [...] Read more.
Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) has been one of the most innovative discoveries for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The process has significant advantages for energy saving and sludge reduction, also capital costs and greenhouse gases emissions are reduced. Recently, the use of anammox has rapidly become mainstream in China. This study reviews the engineering applications of the anammox process in China, including various anammox-based technologies, selection of anammox reactors and attempts to apply them to different wastewater treatment plants. This review discusses the control and implementation of stable reactor operation and analyzes challenges facing mainstream anammox applications. Finally, a unique and novel perspective on the development and application of anammox in China is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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Other

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Open AccessProject Report
Treatment of High-Concentration Wastewater from an Oil and Gas Field via a Paired Sequencing Batch and Ceramic Membrane Reactor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061953 - 17 Mar 2020
Abstract
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a ceramic membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were used in conjunction (SBR+CMBR) to treat high-concentration oil and gas field wastewater (HCOGW) from the China National Offshore Oil Corporation Zhanjiang Branch (Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [...] Read more.
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a ceramic membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were used in conjunction (SBR+CMBR) to treat high-concentration oil and gas field wastewater (HCOGW) from the China National Offshore Oil Corporation Zhanjiang Branch (Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China). The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the oil concentrations in the wastewater were 20,000–76,000 and 600–2200 mg/L, respectively. After the SBR+CMBR process, the effluent COD and oil content values were less than 250 mg/L and 2 mg/L, respectively, which met the third level of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standards of China (GB8978-1996). Through microbiological analysis, it was found that the CMBR domesticated a previously unreported functional microorganism (JF922467.1) that successfully formed a new microbial ecosystem suitable for HCOGW treatment. In conjunction with the SBR process, the CMBR process effectively reduced pollutant concentrations in HCOGW. Moreover, economic analyses indicated that the total investment required to implement the proposed infrastructure would be approximately 671,776.61 USD, and the per-unit water treatment cost would be 1.04 USD/m3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Processes in Wastewater Treatment)
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