Special Issue "Actions in EU MS for Combating Health Threats in the Maritime Transport Sector"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine University of Thessaly, 22 Papakyriazi Street, 41222 Larissa, Greece
Interests: epidemiology, surveillance of infectious diseases; vector-borne diseases; zoonoses; environmental health and hygiene
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuing fast mobility of people and goods can threaten population health by spreading infectious disease from country-to-country and dispersing vectors and pathogens. People and goods are transferred by ships and enter countries through ports. The International Health Regulations (IHR) require countries to develop and maintain certain capacities at designated points of entry to be available both at all times and to respond to events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). The core capacities to be available at all times include medical assessment and care, staff, equipment, personnel and means to transport ill travelers; trained personnel for inspection of conveyances; ensuring a safe environment (e.g., water, food, waste); and trained staff and a program for vector control. Capacity requirements to be available for responding to an event that may constitute a PHEIC include, among others, a public health emergency contingency plan and the application of measures to disinsect, disinfect, and decontaminate baggage, cargo, goods, implement entry and exit screening, etc. Maritime transport can impact population health. Ships (cargo/passenger) have provided the setting for person-to-person or animal-to-human disease transmission; ships have been the source of infection (contaminated food/surfaces/water), transmitted infections or vectors internationally and affected the quality of food products carried. Ship environment influences crew health.

This Special Issue will collate work produced in the framework of the EU SHIPSAN ACT Joint Action. The general objective of this action was to strengthen an integrated strategy and sustainable mechanisms at the EU level for safeguarding the health of travelers and crew of passenger and cargo ships and preventing the cross-border spread of diseases. Actions focused on prevention, identification, assessment and link with existing mechanisms for response coordination to serious cross border threats to health caused by communicable diseases, chemical, biological and radiological agents, the impact on maritime transport of health threats due to biological, chemical and radiological agents, including communicable diseases.

Acronym: SHIPSAN ACT http://www.shipsan.eu/
(Joint Action Agreement Number: 2012 2103)
Financed by the European Commission Second Programme of Community Action in
the Field of Health 2008-2013, grant number [2012 2103], Start date:
01/02/2013, End date: 01/11/2016

Topics
1. Core capacities at points of entry-ports as per International Health
Regulations 2005
2. Health and hygiene in maritime transport sector
3. Maritime and occupational health
4. Preparedness and response to cross-border health threats in the
maritime transport sector

Prof. Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
European Web-Based Platform for Recording International Health Regulations Ship Sanitation Certificates: Results and Perspectives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091833 - 24 Aug 2018
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to report the data analysis results from the International Health Regulations (2005) Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSCs), recorded in the European Information System (EIS). International sea trade and population movements by ships can contribute to the global spread [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to report the data analysis results from the International Health Regulations (2005) Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSCs), recorded in the European Information System (EIS). International sea trade and population movements by ships can contribute to the global spread of diseases. SSCs are issued to ensure the implementation of control measures if a public health risk exists on board. EIS designed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) “Handbook for Inspection of Ships and Issuance of SSC”. Inspection data were recorded and SSCs issued by inspectors working at European ports were analysed. From July 2011–February 2017, 107 inspectors working at 54 ports in 11 countries inspected 5579 ships. Of these, there were 29 types under 85 flags (including 19 EU Member States flags). As per IHR (2005) 10,281 Ship Sanitation Control Exception Certificates (SSCECs) and 296 Ship Sanitation Control Certificates (SSCCs) were issued, 74 extensions to existing SSCs were given, 7565 inspection findings were recorded, and 47 inspections were recorded without issuing an SSC. The most frequent inspection findings were the lack of potable water quality monitoring reports (23%). Ships aged ≥12 years (odds ratio, OR = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.37–2.29) with an absence of cargo at time of inspection (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 2.51–4.50) had a higher probability of receiving an SSCC, while ships under the EU MS flag had a lower probability of having inspection findings (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.66–0.79). Risk factors to prioritise the inspections according to IHR were identified by using the EIS. A global information system, or connection of national or regional information systems and data exchange, could help to better implement SSCs using common standards and procedures. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases on Ships: Evidence for Cross-Border Transmission and for Pre-Employment Immunization Need
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152713 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A literature review was conducted to identify evidence of cases and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) that have been reported from on board ships and the methods applied on board for prevention and control, worldwide, in 1990 to April 2019. Moreover, evidence from [...] Read more.
A literature review was conducted to identify evidence of cases and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) that have been reported from on board ships and the methods applied on board for prevention and control, worldwide, in 1990 to April 2019. Moreover, evidence from seroprevalence studies for the same diseases were also included. The literature review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 1795 cases (115 outbreaks, 7 case reports) were identified, the majority were among crew (1466/1795, 81.7%) and were varicella cases (1497, 83.4%). The origin of crew cases was from sub-tropical countries in many reports. Measles (40 cases, 69% among crew), rubella (47, 88.7%), herpes zoster (9, 69.2%) and varicella cases (1316, 87.9%) were more frequent among crew. Mumps cases were equal among passengers and crew (22/22). Hepatitis A (73/92, 70.3%), meningococcal meningitis (16/29, 44.8%), and pertussis (9/9) were more frequent among passengers. Two outbreaks resulted in 262 secondary measles cases on land. Review results were used to draft a new chapter for prevention and control of VPDs in the European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships. Despite past and current evidence for cross-border VPD transmission and maritime occupational risks, documented pre-employment examination of immune status, vaccination of seafarers, and travel advice to passengers are not yet regulated. Full article
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