Next Article in Journal
The Role of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Thyroid Carcinogenesis: Is It a Weak Hypothesis or a Hidden Reality? From Facts to New Perspectives
Next Article in Special Issue
A Systematic Review for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases on Ships: Evidence for Cross-Border Transmission and for Pre-Employment Immunization Need
Previous Article in Journal
Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Birth Outcomes; An Updated Analysis from the Danish National Birth Cohort
Open AccessArticle

European Web-Based Platform for Recording International Health Regulations Ship Sanitation Certificates: Results and Perspectives

1
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41222, Greece
2
Seaport Cell, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
3
Federal Environmental Inspection (Biocides and Pesticides, Dangerous Products), Federal Public Services Health, Safety of the Food Chain and Environment, Victor Hortaplein 40/10, 1060 Brussel, Belgium
4
Health Control Unit Deputy Directorate General of Foreign Health Directorate General for Public Health, Quality and Innovation Ministry of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare, Paseo del Prado 18-20, 28014 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Author group: the EU SHIPSAN ACT joint action partnership: Despena Andrioti, Anastasia Barbouni, Janneke Broekhuijsen, Martin Dirksen-Fischer, Rita Ferrelli, Brigita Kairienė, Antonis Kantonis, Galina Kokosharova, Elina Kostara, Angel Kunchev, Peter Otorepec, Robertas Petraitis, Rimantas Pilipavicius, Carman Varela Martinez, Natalja Vozelevskaja, Dominique Wagner.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091833
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
The purpose of this study was to report the data analysis results from the International Health Regulations (2005) Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSCs), recorded in the European Information System (EIS). International sea trade and population movements by ships can contribute to the global spread of diseases. SSCs are issued to ensure the implementation of control measures if a public health risk exists on board. EIS designed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) “Handbook for Inspection of Ships and Issuance of SSC”. Inspection data were recorded and SSCs issued by inspectors working at European ports were analysed. From July 2011–February 2017, 107 inspectors working at 54 ports in 11 countries inspected 5579 ships. Of these, there were 29 types under 85 flags (including 19 EU Member States flags). As per IHR (2005) 10,281 Ship Sanitation Control Exception Certificates (SSCECs) and 296 Ship Sanitation Control Certificates (SSCCs) were issued, 74 extensions to existing SSCs were given, 7565 inspection findings were recorded, and 47 inspections were recorded without issuing an SSC. The most frequent inspection findings were the lack of potable water quality monitoring reports (23%). Ships aged ≥12 years (odds ratio, OR = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.37–2.29) with an absence of cargo at time of inspection (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 2.51–4.50) had a higher probability of receiving an SSCC, while ships under the EU MS flag had a lower probability of having inspection findings (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.66–0.79). Risk factors to prioritise the inspections according to IHR were identified by using the EIS. A global information system, or connection of national or regional information systems and data exchange, could help to better implement SSCs using common standards and procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: international health regulations; Ship Sanitation Certificates; inspection; ship; travel; maritime health; sanitation international health regulations; Ship Sanitation Certificates; inspection; ship; travel; maritime health; sanitation
MDPI and ACS Style

Mouchtouri, V.A.; Van Reusel, D.; Bitsolas, N.; Katsioulis, A.; Van den Bogaert, R.; Helewaut, B.; Steenhout, I.; Damman, D.; Dávila Cornejo, M.; Hadjichristodoulou, C.; The EU SHIPSAN ACT Joint Action Partnership. European Web-Based Platform for Recording International Health Regulations Ship Sanitation Certificates: Results and Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1833.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop