Next Article in Journal
Factors Affecting Korean Physician Job Satisfaction
Previous Article in Journal
The Mental Health Benefits of Purposeful Activities in Public Green Spaces in Urban and Semi-Urban Neighbourhoods: A Mixed-Methods Pilot and Proof of Concept Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
European Web-Based Platform for Recording International Health Regulations Ship Sanitation Certificates: Results and Perspectives
Open AccessReview

A Systematic Review for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases on Ships: Evidence for Cross-Border Transmission and for Pre-Employment Immunization Need

1
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, 41222 Larissa, Greece
2
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this research.
Author group: the EU SHIPSAN ACT joint action partnership: Despena Andrioti, Anastasia Barbouni, Miguel Dávila-Cornejo, Martin Dirksen-Fischer, Mauro Dionisio, Rita Ferrelli, Brigita Kairienė, Galina Kokosharova, Angel Kunchev, Peter Otorepec, Robertas Petraitis, Rimantas Pilipavicius, Carman Varela Martinez, Natalja Vozelevskaja, Dominique Wagner.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152713
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
A literature review was conducted to identify evidence of cases and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) that have been reported from on board ships and the methods applied on board for prevention and control, worldwide, in 1990 to April 2019. Moreover, evidence from seroprevalence studies for the same diseases were also included. The literature review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 1795 cases (115 outbreaks, 7 case reports) were identified, the majority were among crew (1466/1795, 81.7%) and were varicella cases (1497, 83.4%). The origin of crew cases was from sub-tropical countries in many reports. Measles (40 cases, 69% among crew), rubella (47, 88.7%), herpes zoster (9, 69.2%) and varicella cases (1316, 87.9%) were more frequent among crew. Mumps cases were equal among passengers and crew (22/22). Hepatitis A (73/92, 70.3%), meningococcal meningitis (16/29, 44.8%), and pertussis (9/9) were more frequent among passengers. Two outbreaks resulted in 262 secondary measles cases on land. Review results were used to draft a new chapter for prevention and control of VPDs in the European Manual for Hygiene Standards and Communicable Disease Surveillance on Passenger Ships. Despite past and current evidence for cross-border VPD transmission and maritime occupational risks, documented pre-employment examination of immune status, vaccination of seafarers, and travel advice to passengers are not yet regulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; cruise; ship; travel; maritime health; varicella; chickenpox; mumps; rubella; measles; pertussis; diphtheria; meningococcal disease; hepatitis A; vaccination; occupational health; seafarers; sailors vaccine; cruise; ship; travel; maritime health; varicella; chickenpox; mumps; rubella; measles; pertussis; diphtheria; meningococcal disease; hepatitis A; vaccination; occupational health; seafarers; sailors
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mouchtouri, V.A.; Lewis, H.C.; Hadjichristodoulou, C.; the EU SHIPSAN ACT Joint Action Partnership. A Systematic Review for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases on Ships: Evidence for Cross-Border Transmission and for Pre-Employment Immunization Need. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2713.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop