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Neurocognitive Disorders and Environmental Pollution

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 10811

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Research in Neurology, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
Interests: neurodegenerative diseases; alzheimer disease; effects of environmental pollution on neurocognitive function; psycho-geriatrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is noteworthy that environmental pollution may affect several human organs and systems. Recent studies have specifically linked environmental pollution—and specifically air pollution—to several conditions affecting the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cognitive decline, and neurodevelopmental disorders. A few years ago, the presence of million iron particles was demonstrated in animal and human brains living in heavy polluted cities. It has also been reported that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxins and furans, are linked to dementia and cognitive decline, while early prenatal exposures to endocrine disruptors and other amniotic contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of neurocodevelomental disorders resulting in the worldwide spread of autism. It has been demonstrated that PM 2.5 and mostly PM < 1 and 0.1 can easily reach the CNS, where they can activate innate immune responses or involve the CNS in systemic inflammatory processes arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular systems. Emerging evidence suggests that air pollution is able to induce neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood–brain barrier. Further scientific evaluations should be performed concerning electromagnetic fields and microwaves in relation to exposure to the widely diffused mobile phones/smartphones, in the perspective of the introduction of the 5G technology. Despite that, the topic of negative effect of environmental pollution on the human brain still remains an ignored topic.

This Special Issue on Neurocognitive Disorders and Environmental Pollution is aimed at stimulating neurologist and scientists working in the field of environment and health at contributing to produce evidence on this topic, with particular focus on air pollution, water/soil and food, contamination by pesticides or other chemicals, and electromagnetic fields (including those produced by mobile phones). Articles addressing the effect on the central nervous system of environmental exposures to pollutants and their biological mechanisms, as well as epidemiological surveys, are solicited: systematic reviews, meta-analyses, original research articles, short articles or commentaries are welcome and expected to add relevant information to the current knowledge.

Prof. Dr. Giancarlo Logroscino
Dr. Alessandro Miani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pollutants
  • environment
  • neuro active agents
  • neurological diseases
  • neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Editorial

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11 pages, 314 KiB  
Editorial
Environmental Issues and Neurological Manifestations Associated with COVID-19 Pandemic: New Aspects of the Disease?
by Luigi Bellocchio, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Andrea Ballini, Felice Lorusso, Denisa Hazballa, Ciro Gargiulo Isacco, Giuseppina Malcangi, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma, Francesco Inchingolo, Prisco Piscitelli, Giancarlo Logroscino and Alessandro Miani
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218049 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 3928
Abstract
Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in December 2019 and rapidly caused a global health pandemic. Current evidence seems to suggest a possible link with ecosystem disequilibrium and even air pollution. The primary manifestations affect respiratory and circulatory systems, but neurological features are also [...] Read more.
Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in December 2019 and rapidly caused a global health pandemic. Current evidence seems to suggest a possible link with ecosystem disequilibrium and even air pollution. The primary manifestations affect respiratory and circulatory systems, but neurological features are also being reported through case reports and case series. We summarize neurological symptoms and complications associated with COVID-19. We have searched for original articles published in PubMed/Medline, PubMed Central and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “COVID-19”, “Coronavirus”, “pandemic”, “SARS-COV-2”, “neurology”, “neurological”, “complications” and “manifestations”. We found around 1000 publications addressing the issue of neurological conditions associated with COVID-19 infection. Amongst those, headache and dizziness are the most common reported symptoms followed by encephalopathy and delirium, while the most frequent complications are cerebrovascular accidents, Guillain–Barré syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, and acute encephalitis. Specific symptoms affecting the peripheral nervous system such as hyposmia and dysgeusia are the most common manifestations recorded in the selected studies. Interestingly, it was noted that these kinds of neurological symptoms might precede the typical features, such as fever and cough, in COVID patients. Neurological symptoms and complications associated with COVID-19 should be considered as a part of the clinical features of this novel global pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurocognitive Disorders and Environmental Pollution)

Research

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11 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Exposure to Particulate Matter as a Potential Risk Factor for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Children and Adolescents (KNHANES 2008–2018)
by Jung-Im Shim, Garam Byun and Jong-Tae Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113966 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Many epidemiological studies have suggested that air pollution adversely affects neurodevelopment in children; however, evidence is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Data were obtained from the [...] Read more.
Many epidemiological studies have suggested that air pollution adversely affects neurodevelopment in children; however, evidence is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the association between particulate matter (PM) exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Data were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2018. Outcomes were defined from parental reports of ever doctor-diagnosed ADHD, and ADHD cases were matched to non-cases with 1:10 age–sex matching. Individual exposure levels were assigned according to each study participant’s administrative address during the year of diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After age–sex matching at a 1:10 ratio, the final study participants comprised 1,120 children aged 6–19 years old. A unit increase in the PM10 concentration was significantly associated with ADHD (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2.02 per 10 µg/m3). The association with ADHD was stronger at higher quartiles than in the lower quartiles of PM10 exposure; however, it was not statistically significant. Our results suggested that long-term PM10 exposure was associated with increased ADHD in children and adolescents. Children diagnosed with ADHD suffer from a variety of social activity and have a significant economic burden. Therefore, it is considered an important role to find out the effects of environmental risk factors, including air pollution, on children and adolescents. This may also help to increase the body of knowledge in this field and to stimulate further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurocognitive Disorders and Environmental Pollution)
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13 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Associations between Metal Exposures and Cognitive Function in American Older Adults
by Nozomi Sasaki and David O. Carpenter
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042327 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4573
Abstract
Cognitive function frequently declines with older age, independently of the development of neurodegenerative diseases, and few interventions are known to counter this decline. Exposure to neurotoxic metals may contribute to this decline in cognitive function in older adults. Using the National Health and [...] Read more.
Cognitive function frequently declines with older age, independently of the development of neurodegenerative diseases, and few interventions are known to counter this decline. Exposure to neurotoxic metals may contribute to this decline in cognitive function in older adults. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, the performance of 3042 adults aged 60 years and older on three cognitive tests for immediate, delayed, and working memory were examined in relation to blood concentrations of seven metals and metalloids and urinary concentrations of nineteen metals and metabolites. Using linear regression models, associations between cognitive tests and logarithms of metal exposures were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education level, depression, diabetes, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. Increased selenium was strongly associated with better performance on all three cognitive tests. Cadmium and lead were negatively associated with performance on all three cognitive tests. Some urinary metabolites of arsenic, urinary lead, cadmium, and tungsten were significantly associated with poor performance on some tests. In older adults, higher selenium levels were strongly associated with better cognitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurocognitive Disorders and Environmental Pollution)
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