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Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2022) | Viewed by 48611

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Musicology Research Group, Faculty of Arts, KU Leuven-University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2. Department of Art History, Musicology and Theatre Studies, IPEM, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: music psychology; musical sense-making; musical epistemology; neurobiological grounding of music listening; music and brain studies
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Guest Editor
Institute of Musicology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 61–712 Poznań, Poland
Interests: biomusicology; music psychology; the origins of musicality; anthropology; the evolution of hearing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Audiology Section, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 2011, New Zealand
Interests: noise; hearing; hearing loss; noise-induced hearing loss; auditory neurophysiology; psychoacoustics; soundscape; health promotion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Music and sound, can elicit multiple reactions by trespassing on the body and the mind. Much research has been conducted into their beneficial or harmful effects in the short and the long term. The underlying mechanisms have been investigated through two major research avenues: the experimental approach, which aims at measuring how features of the music/sound affect the listener’s responses, and the individual differences approach, which examines intrapersonal factors that lead to different musical/sound experiences. The aim of this research topic is to bring together recent findings, theories and hypotheses from a multiplicity of domains, focusing on positive as well as negative outcomes of listening and coping with music and sounds. Music and sound, in fact, can be regarded as triggers or reinforcers with effects that can be investigated from the psychological, physical-physiological, neurological, behavioral, endocrinological and immunological domains. Special attention is paid to the inductive power of music, the neurobiology of emotions, the role of the reward system in musical/acoustical processing, peak emotional experiences such as chills and thrills, the neuroaesthetics of music and corresponding neuroplastic changes, the harmful effects of loud music or sounds and maladaptive listening, the influence of music and other sounds on sleep, and clinical applications both for the healthy and the impaired.

Prof. Dr. Mark Reybrouck
Prof. Dr. Piotr Podlipniak
Dr. David Welch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • music and health
  • music as trigger
  • inductive power
  • neuroaesthetics
  • music as reward
  • hearing damage
  • maladaptive listening
  • neurobiology of stress
  • chills and thrills

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Effects of Interactive Music Tempo with Heart Rate Feedback on Physio-Psychological Responses of Basketball Players
by Chung-Chiang Chen, Yi Chen, Li-Chuan Tang and Wei-Hua Chieng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084810 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4382
Abstract
This paper introduces an interactive music tempo control with closed-loop heart rate feedback to yield a sportsperson with better physio-psychological states. A total of 23 participants (13 men, 10 women; 16–32 years, mean = 20.04 years) who are professionals or school team members [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an interactive music tempo control with closed-loop heart rate feedback to yield a sportsperson with better physio-psychological states. A total of 23 participants (13 men, 10 women; 16–32 years, mean = 20.04 years) who are professionals or school team members further guide a sportsperson to amend their physical tempo to harmonize their psychological and physical states. The self-tuning mechanism between the surroundings and the human can be amplified using interactive music tempo control. The experiments showed that listening to interactive music had a significant effect on the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of the basketball player compared to those listening to asynchronous music or no music during exercise (p < 0.01). Synchronized interactive music allows athletes to increase their heart rate and decrease RPE during exercise and does not require a multitude of preplanned playlists. All self-selected songs can be converted into sports-oriented music using algorithms. The algorithms of synchronous and asynchronous modes in this study can be adjusted and applied to other sports fields or recovery after exercise. In the future, other musical parameters should be adjusted in real-time based on physiological signals, such as tonality, beats, chords, and orchestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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18 pages, 2473 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Music Tempo on Fatigue Perception at Different Exercise Intensities
by Jianfeng Wu, Lingyan Zhang, Hongchun Yang, Chunfu Lu, Lu Jiang and Yuyun Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073869 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4850
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of music tempo on runners’ perception of fatigue at different exercise intensities and while listening to music of different tempos through running experiments. Methods: This study used a within-subject two-factor experimental design with music tempo [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of music tempo on runners’ perception of fatigue at different exercise intensities and while listening to music of different tempos through running experiments. Methods: This study used a within-subject two-factor experimental design with music tempo (fast music, slow music, no music) and exercise intensity (high intensity, low intensity) as independent variables and the time to fatigue perception (TFP), the difference in heart rate (HR) and the difference in the median frequency (MF) of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as observation indexes. Eighteen participants completed a total of 108 sets of running experiments. Results: (1) The main effect of music tempo on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001). (2) The main effect of exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001), and the main effect on the difference in HR was significant (p < 0.001). (3) The interaction effect of music tempo and exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exercisers’ subjective perception of fatigue was affected by music tempo and the interaction between music tempo and exercise intensity, and exercisers’ objective fatigue perception was influenced mostly by exercise intensity. The findings of this study provide guidance for runners’ choice of music at different intensities of exercise. Whether it is low-intensity exercise or high-intensity exercise, listening to fast music while exercising can help runners perform better mentally and physically during their runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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24 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Music Listening and Homeostatic Regulation: Surviving and Flourishing in a Sonic World
by Mark Reybrouck, Piotr Podlipniak and David Welch
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010278 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4025
Abstract
This paper argues for a biological conception of music listening as an evolutionary achievement that is related to a long history of cognitive and affective-emotional functions, which are grounded in basic homeostatic regulation. Starting from the three levels of description, the acoustic description [...] Read more.
This paper argues for a biological conception of music listening as an evolutionary achievement that is related to a long history of cognitive and affective-emotional functions, which are grounded in basic homeostatic regulation. Starting from the three levels of description, the acoustic description of sounds, the neurological level of processing, and the psychological correlates of neural stimulation, it conceives of listeners as open systems that are in continuous interaction with the sonic world. By monitoring and altering their current state, they can try to stay within the limits of operating set points in the pursuit of a controlled state of dynamic equilibrium, which is fueled by interoceptive and exteroceptive sources of information. Listening, in this homeostatic view, can be adaptive and goal-directed with the aim of maintaining the internal physiology and directing behavior towards conditions that make it possible to thrive by seeking out stimuli that are valued as beneficial and worthy, or by attempting to avoid those that are annoying and harmful. This calls forth the mechanisms of pleasure and reward, the distinction between pleasure and enjoyment, the twin notions of valence and arousal, the affect-related consequences of music listening, the role of affective regulation and visceral reactions to the sounds, and the distinction between adaptive and maladaptive listening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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22 pages, 1325 KiB  
Article
Mind-Wandering during Personal Music Listening in Everyday Life: Music-Evoked Emotions Predict Thought Valence
by Liila Taruffi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312321 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
Research has shown that mind-wandering, negative mood, and poor wellbeing are closely related, stressing the importance of exploring contexts or tools that can stimulate positive thoughts and images. While music represents a promising option, work on this topic is still scarce with only [...] Read more.
Research has shown that mind-wandering, negative mood, and poor wellbeing are closely related, stressing the importance of exploring contexts or tools that can stimulate positive thoughts and images. While music represents a promising option, work on this topic is still scarce with only a few studies published, mainly featuring laboratory or online music listening tasks. Here, I used the experience sampling method for the first time to capture mind-wandering during personal music listening in everyday life, aiming to test for the capacity of music to facilitate beneficial styles of mind-wandering and to explore its experiential characteristics. Twenty-six participants used a smart-phone application that collected reports of thought, mood, and emotion during music listening or other daily-life activities over 10 days. The application was linked to a music playlist, specifically assembled to induce positive and relaxing emotions. Results showed that mind-wandering evoked during music and non-music contexts had overall similar characteristics, although some minor differences were also observed. Most importantly, music-evoked emotions predicted thought valence, thereby indicating music as an effective tool to regulate thoughts via emotion. These findings have important applications for music listening in daily life as well as for the use of music in health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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16 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Surrounded by Sound: The Impact of Tinnitus on Musicians
by Georgina Burns-O’Connell, David Stockdale, Oscar Cassidy, Victoria Knowles and Derek J. Hoare
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179036 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
AIM: To investigate the impact of tinnitus on professional musicians in the UK. BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is the experience of sound when an external source is absent, primarily associated with the ageing process, hearing loss, and noise exposure. Amongst populations exposed to industrial noise, [...] Read more.
AIM: To investigate the impact of tinnitus on professional musicians in the UK. BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is the experience of sound when an external source is absent, primarily associated with the ageing process, hearing loss, and noise exposure. Amongst populations exposed to industrial noise, noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been found to be the factors most associated with tinnitus. The risk of NIHL amongst professional musicians is greater than that amongst the general population, meaning they may be at increased risk of tinnitus. METHODS: Seventy-four professional musicians completed an online survey involving closed and open-ended questions, and completed the Tinnitus fuctional Index (TFI) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of open-ended qualitative responses were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Three themes were generated from the analysis of the responses to the open-ended questions. These themes were: (1) the impact of tinnitus on the lives of professional musicians, (2) professional musician experience of tinnitus services, support, and hearing health and safety, and (3) the support professional musicians want. The mean global TFI score for professional musicians was 39.05, interpreted as tinnitus being a moderate problem. Comparisons with general population data revealed lower TFI scores for the TFI subscales of ‘sense of control’ and ‘intrusiveness’ for professional musicians and higher for auditory difficulties associated with tinnitus amongst professional musicians. CONCLUSION: Tinnitus can negatively impact on professional musicians’ lives. There is a need for bespoke self-help groups, awareness raising, and education to prevent tinnitus and promote hearing health among musicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)

Review

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18 pages, 1157 KiB  
Review
Meaning in Music Is Intentional, but in Soundscape It Is Not—A Naturalistic Approach to the Qualia of Sounds
by David Welch, Mark Reybrouck and Piotr Podlipniak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010269 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The sound environment and music intersect in several ways and the same holds true for the soundscape and our internal response to listening to music. Music may be part of a sound environment or take on some aspects of environmental sound, and therefore [...] Read more.
The sound environment and music intersect in several ways and the same holds true for the soundscape and our internal response to listening to music. Music may be part of a sound environment or take on some aspects of environmental sound, and therefore some of the soundscape response may be experienced alongside the response to the music. At a deeper level, coping with music, spoken language, and the sound environment may all have influenced our evolution, and the cognitive-emotional structures and responses evoked by all three sources of acoustic information may be, to some extent, the same. This paper distinguishes and defines the extent of our understanding about the interplay of external sound and our internal response to it in both musical and real-world environments. It takes a naturalistic approach to music/sound and music-listening/soundscapes to describe in objective terms some mechanisms of sense-making and interactions with the sounds. It starts from a definition of sound as vibrational and transferable energy that impinges on our body and our senses, with a dynamic tension between lower-level coping mechanisms and higher-level affective and cognitive functioning. In this way, we establish both commonalities and differences between musical responses and soundscapes. Future research will allow this understanding to grow and be refined further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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31 pages, 898 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Scientific Studies on the Effects of Music in People with or at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Briana Applewhite, Zeynep Cankaya, Annie Heiderscheit and Hubertus Himmerich
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095150 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 8028
Abstract
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is globally increasing, and the current available interventions show variable success. Thus, there is a growing interest in additional interventions such as music therapy (MT). Therefore, we aimed to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of [...] Read more.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is globally increasing, and the current available interventions show variable success. Thus, there is a growing interest in additional interventions such as music therapy (MT). Therefore, we aimed to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of music and people with, or at risk of, ASD. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and used PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science as databases, with “music”, “music therapy”, “autism spectrum disorder”, and “ASD” as search terms. Among the identified and screened articles, 81 out of 621 qualified as scientific studies involving a total of 43,353 participants. These studies investigated the peculiarities of music perception in people with ASD, as well as the effects of music and MT in this patient group. Most of the music-based interventions were beneficial in improving social, emotional, and behavioural problems. However, the availability of studies utilizing a rigorous randomized controlled trial (RCT) design was scarce. Most of the studies had a small sample size, and the applied therapeutic and scientific research methods were heterogeneous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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16 pages, 549 KiB  
Review
A Special Class of Experience: Positive Affect Evoked by Music and the Arts
by Emery Schubert
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084735 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
A positive experience in response to a piece of music or a work of art (hence ‘music/art’) has been linked to health and wellbeing outcomes but can often be reported as indescribable (ineffable), creating challenges for research. What do these positive experiences feel [...] Read more.
A positive experience in response to a piece of music or a work of art (hence ‘music/art’) has been linked to health and wellbeing outcomes but can often be reported as indescribable (ineffable), creating challenges for research. What do these positive experiences feel like, beyond ‘positive’? How are loved works that evoke profoundly negative emotions explained? To address these questions, two simultaneously occurring classes of experience are proposed: the ‘emotion class’ of experience (ECE) and the positive ‘affect class’ of experience (PACE). ECE consists of conventional, discrete, and communicable emotions with a reasonably well-established lexicon. PACE relates to a more private world of prototypical aesthetic emotions and experiences investigated in positive psychology. After a review of the literature, this paper proposes that PACE consists of physical correlates (tears, racing heart…) and varied amounts of ‘hedonic tone’ (HT), which range from shallow, personal leanings (preference, liking, attraction, etc.) to deep ones that include awe, being-moved, thrills, and wonder. PACE is a separate, simultaneously activated class of experience to ECE. The approach resolves long-standing debates about powerful, positive experiences taking place during negative emotion evocation by music/art. A list of possible terms for describing PACE is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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Other

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23 pages, 687 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Scientific Studies and Case Reports on Music and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
by Thanh Phuong Anh Truong, Briana Applewhite, Annie Heiderscheit and Hubertus Himmerich
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211799 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4599
Abstract
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric disorder, which can be associated with music-related symptoms. Music may also be used as an adjunct treatment for OCD. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic literature review exploring the relationship between music and OCD [...] Read more.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe psychiatric disorder, which can be associated with music-related symptoms. Music may also be used as an adjunct treatment for OCD. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic literature review exploring the relationship between music and OCD by using three online databases: PubMed, the Web of Science, and PsycINFO. The search terms were “obsessive compulsive disorder”, “OCD”, “music”, and “music therapy”. A total of 27 articles were utilised (n = 650 patients/study participants) and grouped into three categories. The first category comprised case reports of patients with musical obsessions in patients with OCD. Most patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or a combination of an SSRI and another pharmacological or a non-pharmacological treatment, with variable success. Studies on the music perception of people with OCD or obsessive-compulsive personality traits represented the second category. People with OCD or obsessive-compulsive personality traits seem to be more sensitive to tense music and were found to have an increased desire for harmony in music. Three small studies on music therapy in people with OCD constituted the third category. These studies suggest that patients with OCD might benefit from music therapy, which includes listening to music. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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14 pages, 386 KiB  
Essay
Music Activities and Mental Health Recovery: Service Users’ Perspectives Presented in the CHIME Framework
by Janne Brammer Damsgaard and Anita Jensen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126638 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6241
Abstract
Internationally, mental health service developments are increasingly informed by the principles of recovery, and the availability of arts and creative activities are becoming more common as part of provision. Mental health service users’ experiences, reflecting on the complex nature of using music participation [...] Read more.
Internationally, mental health service developments are increasingly informed by the principles of recovery, and the availability of arts and creative activities are becoming more common as part of provision. Mental health service users’ experiences, reflecting on the complex nature of using music participation in recovery are, however, limited. This essay considers literature that explores how music can support mental health service users in a recovery process. We have selected studies that include a broad spectrum of music activities, as well as literature considering various concepts about recovery. The conceptual recovery framework CHIME, that includes five important components in the recovery process, is used as the backdrop for exploring music activities as a contribution to recovery-oriented practice and services in mental health care. Eleven key components are identified in which music can support the recovery process: Feelings of equality; Social and emotional wellbeing; Tolerance; Hope and social agency; Triggering encounters; Redefining and reframing; A social practice; Moments of flow and peak experiences; Moments of meaning; Continuity; and Potentials instead of limitations. This essay concludes that the experiential knowledge of music activities from service users’ perspectives is essential knowledge when developing and using music activities in mental health recovery services. While this essay acknowledges that music activities can also produce unintended negative outcomes, the focus is on the positive contributions of music to mental health recovery processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Sound and Their Effects on Physical and Mental Health)
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