Special Issue "Models for the Simulation of Chemistry, Climate, and Pollutant Dispersion in Indoor Environments and Atmospheric Near-Source Plumes"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 January 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Matthias Karl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht - Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Department for Chemistry Transport Modelling, Geesthacht, Germany
Interests: modelling of chemistry and transport of atmospheric pollutants, urban air quality and development of emission control scenarios, particle emissions from mobile transport sources, transformation of particles in the atmosphere via aerosol dynamics and chemical processes
Prof. Dr. Allan Gross
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Aarhus University, Department of Business Development and Technology, Herning, Denmark
Interests: environmental research (atmospheric chemistry, microplastic, vehicle emission estimations using smart phones), optimization of multi process chemical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) is responsible for many health and environmental issues that disproportionately and adversely affect humans around the world. IAP comes from a variety of sources and includes a wide range of particles, gases, chemicals, and other substances. Pollutant sources in indoor living environments, among others, include indoor combustion sources (wood stoves, tobacco, and candles), emissions from building materials and furnishings, wall paint, household cleaning products, and electronic devices.

Infiltration of polluted outdoor air is an important contributor to the indoor exposure. Increased traffic emissions cause high outdoor pollution levels in cities. Near-source pollutant plumes can cause serious health impacts close to sources in urban environments, for example, in a street canyon with high traffic volumes, in the neighborhood of port areas, or near industrial production sites.

The evaluation of health risks in indoor environments is limited by the complexity of the chemical interactions between pollutants, the ventilation and dispersion of pollutants, and the environmental factors that determine indoor climate. Outdoor air used for ventilation of buildings contains high levels of pollutants. While ventilation systems effectively can filter pollen and large particles, the filtration of smaller particles remains a challenge. Thus, the smaller particles can enter into buildings through the ventilation systems and contribute the particle concentrations together with indoor primary and secondary particles. Moreover, infiltration of outdoor pollutants can trigger reactions indoors that may lead to products that are more odorous or harmful than the primary pollutants.

Mathematical models can help to assess the significance of processes and to gain a better understanding of indoor sources and pathways of exposure, relations between indoor and outdoor pollutant levels, and the dependencies of pollutant abundances on environmental factors and climate variables. Hence, modelling is a practical tool to understand the impact that chemical compounds have on indoor/outdoor air pollution and climate.

The focus of this Special Issue is on model applications related to chemistry, climate, and dispersion in indoor environments and near-source outdoor environments. The Special Issue covers model studies dealing with one or more aspects causing the modification of the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere in urbanized areas. The application of models is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies such as source control, ventilation removal, exposure control, and air cleaning technologies.

We welcome scientific research papers and review articles that address chemical processes, particle emission and transformation, as well as climatic conditions in indoor environments or in atmospheric near-source pollution plumes by using computational models. Modelling of the urban heat island effect in relation to the incidence of thermal discomfort on the human cardiovascular and respiratory systems is also welcome.

All submitted papers should link results from their modelling studies to relevant impact on exposures and human health.

Dr. Matthias Karl
Prof. Dr. Allan Gross
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)
  • pollution plume
  • process-oriented modelling
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling
  • occupational health
  • indoor exposure
  • hazardous chemicals
  • gas-phase chemistry
  • heterogeneous chemistry
  • particle emission
  • urban heat island

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Modeling of High Nanoparticle Exposure in an Indoor Industrial Scenario with a One-Box Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101695 - 14 May 2019
Abstract
Mass balance models have proved to be effective tools for exposure prediction in occupational settings. However, they are still not extensively tested in real-world scenarios, or for particle number concentrations. An industrial scenario characterized by high emissions of unintentionally-generated nanoparticles (NP) was selected [...] Read more.
Mass balance models have proved to be effective tools for exposure prediction in occupational settings. However, they are still not extensively tested in real-world scenarios, or for particle number concentrations. An industrial scenario characterized by high emissions of unintentionally-generated nanoparticles (NP) was selected to assess the performance of a one-box model. Worker exposure to NPs due to thermal spraying was monitored, and two methods were used to calculate emission rates: the convolution theorem, and the cyclic steady state equation. Monitored concentrations ranged between 4.2 × 104–2.5 × 105 cm−3. Estimated emission rates were comparable with both methods: 1.4 × 1011–1.2 × 1013 min−1 (convolution) and 1.3 × 1012–1.4 × 1013 min−1 (cyclic steady state). Modeled concentrations were 1.4-6 × 104 cm−3 (convolution) and 1.7–7.1 × 104 cm−3 (cyclic steady state). Results indicated a clear underestimation of measured particle concentrations, with ratios modeled/measured between 0.2–0.7. While both model parametrizations provided similar results on average, using convolution emission rates improved performance on a case-by-case basis. Thus, using cyclic steady state emission rates would be advisable for preliminary risk assessment, while for more precise results, the convolution theorem would be a better option. Results show that one-box models may be useful tools for preliminary risk assessment in occupational settings when room air is well mixed. Full article
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