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Modeling of High Nanoparticle Exposure in an Indoor Industrial Scenario with a One-Box Model

1
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Chemistry faculty, University of Barcelona, C/ de Martí i Franquès, 1–11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), University of Helsinki, PL 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
4
Air Pollution Management, Willemoesgade 16, st tv, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
5
Institute of Ceramic Technology (ITC)- AICE - Universitat Jaume I, Campus Universitario Riu Sec, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12006 Castellón, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101695
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract

Mass balance models have proved to be effective tools for exposure prediction in occupational settings. However, they are still not extensively tested in real-world scenarios, or for particle number concentrations. An industrial scenario characterized by high emissions of unintentionally-generated nanoparticles (NP) was selected to assess the performance of a one-box model. Worker exposure to NPs due to thermal spraying was monitored, and two methods were used to calculate emission rates: the convolution theorem, and the cyclic steady state equation. Monitored concentrations ranged between 4.2 × 104–2.5 × 105 cm−3. Estimated emission rates were comparable with both methods: 1.4 × 1011–1.2 × 1013 min−1 (convolution) and 1.3 × 1012–1.4 × 1013 min−1 (cyclic steady state). Modeled concentrations were 1.4-6 × 104 cm−3 (convolution) and 1.7–7.1 × 104 cm−3 (cyclic steady state). Results indicated a clear underestimation of measured particle concentrations, with ratios modeled/measured between 0.2–0.7. While both model parametrizations provided similar results on average, using convolution emission rates improved performance on a case-by-case basis. Thus, using cyclic steady state emission rates would be advisable for preliminary risk assessment, while for more precise results, the convolution theorem would be a better option. Results show that one-box models may be useful tools for preliminary risk assessment in occupational settings when room air is well mixed. View Full-Text
Keywords: prediction; emission rates; air exchange rate; ultrafine particles; unintentional nanoparticles; incidental nanoparticles; plasma spraying; worker exposure; particle mass concentration prediction; emission rates; air exchange rate; ultrafine particles; unintentional nanoparticles; incidental nanoparticles; plasma spraying; worker exposure; particle mass concentration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ribalta, C.; Koivisto, A.J.; Salmatonidis, A.; López-Lilao, A.; Monfort, E.; Viana, M. Modeling of High Nanoparticle Exposure in an Indoor Industrial Scenario with a One-Box Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1695.

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