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Special Issue "Impact of Lifestyle Interventions in Immune Response, Inflammation and Vascular Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2022 | Viewed by 7567

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Armando Caseiro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Politécnico de Coimbra, ESTESC, Ciências Biomédicas Laboratoriais, Rua 5 de Outubro, 3046-854 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: protein biochemistry; diabetes; molecular biology; saliva; laboratory diagnostics; matrix metalloproteinases
Prof. Dr. Fábio Santos Lira
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Presidente Prudente, Brasil
Interests: immunometabolism; exercise biochemistry; nutrition physiology; energetic metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the high potential of lifestyle changes to modify human health, namely in terms of the immune system, the inflammatory response, and at the vascular level, the application of this knowledge is still far from reaching its maximum potential, with great gains in the health of populations.

The reported impacts of different lifestyle interventions are remarkable, but it is extremely important to continue the effort to affirm non-pharmacological strategies in the prevention of an increasingly wide range of metabolic, inflammatory, and immune-associated disorders. In this sense, these approaches play a pivotal role in cardiovascular pathology and in preventing or reducing the impact of one of the main causes of death worldwide.

Adding the growing evidence that physical exercise and diet modulate the immune response, moving toward healthier lifestyles could help to improve public health, reduce healthcare costs, and increase population resilience to infectious diseases like COVID-19.

In this Special Issue, we aim to highlight the impact of lifestyle changes in order to effectively reduce inflammation, strengthen the immune system, and improve vascular health, showing the potential of different and complementary community interventions that push forward these types of actions in the view of global health.

Prof. Dr. Armando Caseiro
Prof. Dr. Fábio Santos Lira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • diet
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • inflammation
  • immune system
  • dyslipidemia

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Role of Body Mass and Physical Activity in Autonomic Function Modulation on Post-COVID-19 Condition: An Observational Subanalysis of Fit-COVID Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042457 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3248
Abstract
The harmful effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reach the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial function. Therefore, the detrimental multiorgan effects of COVID-19 could be induced by deregulations in ANS that may persist after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, investigating the [...] Read more.
The harmful effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reach the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial function. Therefore, the detrimental multiorgan effects of COVID-19 could be induced by deregulations in ANS that may persist after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, investigating the differences in ANS response in overweight/obese, and physically inactive participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not have the disease is necessary. The aim of the study was to analyze the autonomic function of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to assess whether body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity modulates autonomic function in participants with and without COVID-19. Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. A general anamnesis was taken, and BMI and physical activity levels were assessed. The ANS was evaluated through heart rate variability. A total of 57 subjects were evaluated. Sympathetic nervous system activity in the post-COVID-19 group was increased (stress index; p = 0.0273). They also presented lower values of parasympathetic activity (p < 0.05). Overweight/obese subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly lower parasympathetic activity and reduced global variability compared to non-obese in control group (p < 0.05). Physically inactive subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly higher sympathetic activity than active subjects in the control group. Parasympathetic activity was significantly increased in physically active subjects in the control group compared to the physically inactive post-COVID-19 group (p < 0.05). COVID-19 promotes changes in the ANS of young adults, and these changes are modulated by overweight/obesity and physical activity levels. Full article
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Review

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Review
Exercise as a Peripheral Circadian Clock Resynchronizer in Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Aging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412949 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Aging is characterized by several progressive physiological changes, including changes in the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms influence behavior, physiology, and metabolic processes in order to maintain homeostasis; they also influence the function of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells in the [...] Read more.
Aging is characterized by several progressive physiological changes, including changes in the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms influence behavior, physiology, and metabolic processes in order to maintain homeostasis; they also influence the function of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells in the vessel wall. A clock misalignment could favor vascular damage and indirectly also affect skeletal muscle function. In this review, we focus on the dysregulation of circadian rhythm due to aging and its relationship with skeletal muscle changes and vascular health as possible risk factors for the development of sarcopenia, as well as the role of physical exercise as a potential modulator of these processes. Full article
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Other

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Protocol
Modulatory Effects of Physical Activity Levels on Immune Responses and General Clinical Functions in Adult Patients with Mild to Moderate SARS-CoV-2 Infections—A Protocol for an Observational Prospective Follow-Up Investigation: Fit-COVID-19 Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413249 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Background: This proposal aims to explain some of the gaps in scientific knowledge on the natural history of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with a specific focus on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic markers, in parallel with temporal assessment of clinical and mental health in patients [...] Read more.
Background: This proposal aims to explain some of the gaps in scientific knowledge on the natural history of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with a specific focus on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic markers, in parallel with temporal assessment of clinical and mental health in patients with COVID-19. The study will explore the temporal modulatory effects of physical activity and body composition on individual trajectories. This approach will provide a better understanding of the survival mechanisms provided by the immunomodulatory role of physical fitness. Methods: We will conduct a prospective observational cohort study including adult patients previously infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus who have expressed a mild to moderate COVID-19 infection. Procedures will be conducted for all participants at baseline, six weeks after vaccination, and again at 12 months. At each visit, a venous blood sample will be collected for immune phenotypic characterization and biochemistry assays (inflammatory and metabolic parameters). Also, body composition, physical activity level, cardiovascular and pulmonary function, peripheral and respiratory muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, and mental health will be evaluated. Using the baseline information, participants will be grouped based on physical activity levels (sedentary versus active), body composition (normal weight versus overweight or obese), and SARS-CoV-2 status (positive versus negative). A sub-study will provide mechanistic evidence using an in-vitro assay based on well-trained individuals and age-matched sedentary controls who are negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whole blood will be stimulated using recombinant human coronavirus to determine the cytokine profile. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy well-trained participants will be collected and treated with homologous serum (from the main study; samples collected before and after the vaccine) and recombinant coronavirus (inactive virus). The metabolism of PBMCs will be analyzed using Respirometry (Seahorse). Data will be analyzed using multilevel repeated-measures ANOVA. Conclusions: The data generated will help us answer three main questions: (1) Does the innate immune system of physically active individuals respond better to viral infections compared with that of sedentary people? (2) which functional and metabolic mechanisms explain the differences in responses in participants with different physical fitness levels? and (3) do these mechanisms have long-term positive modulatory effects on mental and cardiovascular health? Trial registration number: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-5dqvkv3. Registered on 21 September 2021. Full article
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