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Modulatory Effects of Physical Activity Levels on Immune Responses and General Clinical Functions in Adult Patients with Mild to Moderate SARS-CoV-2 Infections—A Protocol for an Observational Prospective Follow-Up Investigation: Fit-COVID-19 Study
Article

Role of Body Mass and Physical Activity in Autonomic Function Modulation on Post-COVID-19 Condition: An Observational Subanalysis of Fit-COVID Study

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Department of Health Sciences, Central Washington University Ellensburg, Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA
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Physiotherapy Department, Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente 19050-920, Brazil
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Exercise and Immunometabolism Research Group, Postgraduate Program in Movement Sciences, Department of Physical Education, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente 19060-900, Brazil
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Polytechnic of Coimbra, ESTESC, Laboratory Biomedical Sciences, 3046-854 Coimbra, Portugal
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Molecular Physical-Chemistry R & D Unit, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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Laboratory for Applied Health Research (LabinSaúde), 3046-854 Coimbra, Portugal
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Faculty of Sport Science and Physiucal Education, University of Coimbra, CIDAF, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
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Postgraduate Program in Movement Sciences, Department of Physical Education, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente 19060-900, Brazil
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Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre 90050-170, Brazil
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Graduate Program in Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba 80215-901, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul B. Tchounwou and Sylvia Kirchengast
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042457
Received: 29 November 2021 / Revised: 15 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 21 February 2022
The harmful effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reach the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial function. Therefore, the detrimental multiorgan effects of COVID-19 could be induced by deregulations in ANS that may persist after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, investigating the differences in ANS response in overweight/obese, and physically inactive participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not have the disease is necessary. The aim of the study was to analyze the autonomic function of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to assess whether body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity modulates autonomic function in participants with and without COVID-19. Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. A general anamnesis was taken, and BMI and physical activity levels were assessed. The ANS was evaluated through heart rate variability. A total of 57 subjects were evaluated. Sympathetic nervous system activity in the post-COVID-19 group was increased (stress index; p = 0.0273). They also presented lower values of parasympathetic activity (p < 0.05). Overweight/obese subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly lower parasympathetic activity and reduced global variability compared to non-obese in control group (p < 0.05). Physically inactive subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly higher sympathetic activity than active subjects in the control group. Parasympathetic activity was significantly increased in physically active subjects in the control group compared to the physically inactive post-COVID-19 group (p < 0.05). COVID-19 promotes changes in the ANS of young adults, and these changes are modulated by overweight/obesity and physical activity levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; autonomic nervous system; heart rate; obesity; exercise COVID-19; autonomic nervous system; heart rate; obesity; exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Freire, A.P.C.F.; Lira, F.S.; Morano, A.E.v.A.; Pereira, T.; Coelho-E-Silva, M.-J.; Caseiro, A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Marchioto Júnior, O.; Dorneles, G.P.; Minuzzi, L.G.; Pinho, R.A.; Silva, B.S.d.A. Role of Body Mass and Physical Activity in Autonomic Function Modulation on Post-COVID-19 Condition: An Observational Subanalysis of Fit-COVID Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2457. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042457

AMA Style

Freire APCF, Lira FS, Morano AEvA, Pereira T, Coelho-E-Silva M-J, Caseiro A, Christofaro DGD, Marchioto Júnior O, Dorneles GP, Minuzzi LG, Pinho RA, Silva BSdA. Role of Body Mass and Physical Activity in Autonomic Function Modulation on Post-COVID-19 Condition: An Observational Subanalysis of Fit-COVID Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2457. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042457

Chicago/Turabian Style

Freire, Ana P.C.F., Fabio S. Lira, Ana E.v.A. Morano, Telmo Pereira, Manuel-João Coelho-E-Silva, Armando Caseiro, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Osmar Marchioto Júnior, Gilson P. Dorneles, Luciele G. Minuzzi, Ricardo A. Pinho, and Bruna S.d.A. Silva. 2022. "Role of Body Mass and Physical Activity in Autonomic Function Modulation on Post-COVID-19 Condition: An Observational Subanalysis of Fit-COVID Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4: 2457. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042457

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